Thursday, February 16, 2012

The Jama' Prayer Part 2

The Evidences/Proofs (daliel) for Jama‘ Prayer

, كان رسول الله إذا ارتحل في سفره قبل أن تزيغ الشمس أخر الظهر إلى العصر ثم نزل فجمع بينهما ، فإن زاغت الشمس قبل أن يرتحل صلى الظهر ثم ركب -

“When the Messenger wanted to travel before Zohor, he would defer his Zohor Prayer to pray it in Asar’s time, then he would dismount and pray them both the Jama‘ manner. But if he would leave after the arrival of Zohor’s time, he performed his Zohor first before leaving (for the journey) then he would set off.” [1]

و في رواية الحاكم في الأربعين بإسناد صحيح : , صلى الظهر و العصر ثم ركب -
و لأبي نعيم في مستخرج مسلم:
, كان إذا كان في سفر فزالت الشمس صلى الظهر و العصر جميعا ثم ارتحل -
In al-Hakim’s narration in his al-Arba‘ien with a sahih isnad: “He (the Prophet) prayed Zohor and Asar, then he mounted his camel (to start his journey).
Abu Nu‘aim’s version in Mustakhraj Muslim: “In his journey, when Zohor time arrived, the Messenger would offer his Zohor and Asar Prayers in the Jama‘ manner, then he would continue his journey
Mu‘adz bin Jabal narrated:

, خرجنا مع النبي في غزوة تبوك فكان يصلي الظهر و العصر جميعا ، و المغرب و العشاء جميعا -

“We went with the Prophet in (the journey) the Battle of Tabuk, he prayed his Zohor and Asar in the Jama‘ manner and he did Jama‘Prayer (as well) for Maghrib and Isya’.”[2]
Syeikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyah explained: “The Jama‘ Prayer is a form of Rukhsah which is permissible when there is the need arises (to do it), because the Messenger did not performed it (Jama‘) except for very few occassions. Hence the reason why the Fiqh Scholars among the Scholars of Hadeets like Imam Ahmad and others held the view that it is encourage not to perform Jama‘ unless there is a real need to perform it for the sake of following the ways of the Prophet. The most lenient Madzhab in permitting Jama‘ is the Madzhab of Ahmad (Hambali) because he stated that it is permissible when the need arises or when one is pre-occuppied. The ‘Illah (reason/factor./cause) for Jama‘ Prayers is the Hajat (need or urgent circumstance) and not travelling and therefore in it’s original basic ruling it is not related to travelling, in contrary to Qasar.
The truth is, the Messenger did not perform Jama‘ at ‘Arafah and Muzdalifah due to his status as a traveller but rather it was due to his condition being continuosly pre-occupied and busy with the rituals of Hajj from Wuquf…Muzdalifah…thus the Jama‘ Prayer is encouraged/recommended (mustahab) when the need arises (hajat).
Jama‘ is a Rukhsah
Jama‘ is a Rukhsah (رخصة), literally means a concession or allowance[3].
Ibn ‘Umar narrated: “The Messenger (Rasulullah) said:

, إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ تُؤْتَى رُخَصُهُ كَمَا يَكْرَهُ أَنْ تُؤْتَى مَعْصِيَتُهُ -

“Verily Allah likes His rukhsahs (concessions given to His servants) being taken as how He dislikes disobedience (towards Him) being committed (by them).” [4]
In another narration:

, ...كَمَا يُحِبُّ أَنْ تُؤْتَى عَزائمُه -

“…as how He likes ‘aziemah[5] (decisive judgment – original rulings) being taken”[6]
From this hadiets, it is understood that:
1. With the Grace of His Mercy, Allah likes that His slaves take and practise the rukhsahs (concessioned practices) that He legislated for them and granted them with. It is meant for them to practise them (the rukhsahs) when the need arises and when the circumstances permit and the conditions met, such that they perform what is in accordance to His Mercy that He* has bestowed upon them.
2. Among the Divine rukhsahs and guidance is the rukhsahs He granted in worshipping Him* while one is travelling, that is, He* has ordained the permission for him/her to perform the Solat/Prayer in the Qasar manner (shortened concessioned Solat of 4 units of raka‘ah to be performed as 2 units of raka‘ah only), to join 2 prayers of different timeframes as one timeframe (Jama‘ Prayers), to not fast during the fasting month of Ramadan, to wipe/rub on his/her shoes (khuff) instead of washing the feet for 3 days and all these are allowances and concessions granted by Allah * with His Blessings and Mercy for His slaves.
3. Al-‘Aziemah is an original ruling established by a daleel syar‘ie (Islamic legislative proof – text from the Qur’an, as-Sunnah and al-Ijma‘) which does not contradict any other exceptional legislated Syarie‘ah ruling and change it (change it’s original ruling). Al-‘Aziemah represents all the obligatory items and all non-permissible items. All obligatory items were made obligatory by Allah’s decisive judgment (al-‘azmu) and likewise all non-permissible (haram) items are to be abstained from by Allah’s decisive judgment (al-‘azmu).
4. Implementing and putting into practice the rulings of Allah, * regardless of whether they are those of the rukhsah or they are the ‘aziemah type, their rewards and qualities are the same and equaivalent, all (whether ‘aziemah or rukhsah) are considered obedience to Allah and abiding by His rules, by implementing His Rulings or the Syarie‘ah. Therefore, since rukhsah is a great gift from Allah, it is the same as ‘aziemah as both are liked by Allah (even though, by means of our reasoning, logically, we will say that performing an act of worship in the rukhsah manner is inferior compared to performing it in the ‘aziemah way, yet the truth is, taking and implementing rukhsah is better than ‘aziemah, if it is fully compliant with the Syarie‘ah and it’s obejectives).
Another narration, from ‘Umar bin al-Khattab: al-Imam Ahmad narrated on the authority of Ya‘la bin Umaiyah, who said: “I asked ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, whereby I said: (the verse of Surah an-Nisa’: 4:101) – there is no sin on you if you shorten as-Solat (the prayer) if you fear the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you)… – and now people are safe facing no trial (fear of enemy attack). So ‘Umar replied to me: I had the same curiosity as yours (in understanding this verse) so I asked the Messenger about it and he replied saying: It is a sadaqah (gift of Mercy) which Allah granted upon you, so do accept His gift.” [7]
Here the Messenger made an analogy, as how we are joyful when others accept our sincere gifts to them, Allah also likes His Gifts to be accepted by His slaves and he gave the implication that it is compulsory when he said: “do accept His gift”. Wallahu a‘lam.

[1] NB al-Bukhariy and Muslim.
[2] NB Muslim.
[3] Mu‘jam Lughat al-Fuqaha’: 221
[4] NB Imam Ahmad )al-Musnad: 5600) – Ibn Khuzaimah graded it Sahih, and likewise Ibn Hibban.
[5] Mu‘jam Lughat al-Fuqaha’: 311. Translator: It is the opposite of rukhsahs. For .eg. doing Zohor or Asar or Isya 4 rakaahs is ‘Aziemah and performing them 2 rakaahs or in the Qasar manner is rukhsah. Washing the feet in taking wudu’ is ‘Aziemah whlie wiping on the shoes (khuff) without taking them off is rukhsah.
[6] asy-Syeikh al-Albaniy: In conclusion, this hadiets, with the 2 versions taken into account, are Sahih. The sanad of the first hadiets is in compliance with Muslim’s (conditions) and it has many Syawahid (supportive routes) among them the hadiets of Ibn ‘Abbas narrated by asy-Syierazi (with the second version), the hadiets of Ibn Mas‘ud narrated by at-Tabarani (al-Kabier), the hadiets of Abu Hurairah transmitted by Abu Nu‘aim, the hadiets of Anas narrated by ad-Dulabi with a (weak) Do‘ief isnad, yet it has many other routes, the hadiets of Abu Darda’ narrated by at-Tabarani (al-Awsat).
[7] NB Ahmad: 1/25 and Muslim 1/478, Abu Dawood 2/7, Tuhfat al-Ahwadzie (Commentery on Sunan at-Tirmidzi): 8/392, an-Nasa-i: 6/327 and Ibn Majah: 1/339 – al-Misbah al-Munier fie tahdzieb Tafsier Ibn Katsier: 319
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