Tuesday, September 4, 2012

Al-Mahdi according to Ahlu as-Sunnah wal Jama‘ah

1. The Emergence of Al-Mahdi.

Several authentic ahaadeets mention that Allah will make a Caliph to be the leader of the Muslims, near Doomsday, a just ruler from among the descendants of the Messenger, of Ahli Bait lineage, a direct descent of Fatimah, bearing the name of the prophet and his father’s name is the same as the name of the prophet’s father i.e. Muhammad bin ‘Abdillah, al-Hasani al-‘Alawi (al-Hasani = a decendant of al-Hasan bin ‘Aliy bin Abie Talib and al-‘Alawi, is of Ali bin Abi Talib’s lineage).

These ahaadeets also gave a description of this leader; he has a wide forehead, a hooked or Roman nose and he will fill the Earth with justice after it has been filled with transgressions, tyranny and oppression.




Among these ahaadeets are:

a) Abdillah bin Mas‘ud رضي الله عنه said: 

The Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

لا تذهب الدنيا حتى يملك العرب رجل من اهل بيتي ، يواطىء اسمه اسمي 
“The world will not perish until a man from among my Ahli Bait (lineage) leads the Arabs, his name is the same as mine.” 
(Narrated by at-Tirmidzi and Abu Daud)

“If this world is left with only 1 day, Allah will make the day long until Allah make a man from my descend or from my Ahli Bait (lineage) to rise (as a leader), his name is the same as my name and his father’s name is the same as my father’s and he will fill the Earth with justice after it has been filled with transgressions, tyranny and oppression (replacing oppression with justice)”

One day here in exaggeration, not exactly literally one day but implies a time, too close to Doomsday.


b) Ummu Salamahرضي الله عنها (the wife of the Prophet) said:

He صلى الله عليه و سلم said:
< المهدي من عترتي من ولد فاطمة > 
“Al-Mahdi is from among my descendants, from the children of Fatimah.”
( Narrated by Abu Daud, Ibnu Majah and Al-Hakim. Syeikh Nasir said: “It is sahih - authentic.”)


c) Ali bin Abi Tholib رضي الله عنه narrated:

The Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

< المهدي منا أهل البيت يصلحه الله في ليلة > 
 "Al-Mahdi is from us (our decendants), Ahlul Bait, Allah will turn him into a pious man in one night.”

( Narrated by Ahmad and Ibnu Majah)

d) Ali also narrated,

Rasulullah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

< لو لم يبق من الدهر الاّ يوم ، لبعث الله رجلا من أهل بيتي ، يملؤها عدلا ، كما ملئت جورا > 
“When time is left with only 1 day, verily Allah will make a man from among my Ahli Bait to rise to power and spread justice through out earth’s surface as how it has previously been filled with injustice”
 ( Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Daud)


e) Abu Sa’ied al-Khudriy رضي الله عنه, narrated: 

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:
المهدي مني، أجلى الجبهة ، أقنى الأنف ، يملأ الأرض قسطا و عدلا ، كما ملئت جورا و ظلما ، يملك سبع سنين 
“Al-Mahdi is from me (my descendants), has wide forehead, hooked (Roman) nose, will fill the world with justice and fairness as how it has previously been filled with transgressions and injustice, ruling for 7 years.
 ( Narrated by Abu Daud)


f) Abi Sa’ied al-Khudriy رضي الله عنه also, narrated: 

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

< لتملأنّ الأرض جورا و ظلما ، فإذا ملئت جورا و ظلما ، بعث الله رجلا مني ، اسمه اسمي ، فيملؤها قسطا و عدلا ، كما ملئت جورا و ظلما " و في لفظ : "لا تقوم الساعة حتى تملأ الأرض ظلماً و جوراً وعدْواناً ، ثم يخرج رجل من عترتي ، أو من أهل بيتي يملؤها قسطا و عدلا ، كما ملئت جورا و ظلما> 
“The Earth will be filled with transgressions and injustice, when it has been filled with transgressions and injustice, Allah will appoint a man from among my descendants, his name is the same as mine, thus he will fill the Earth with justice and fairness, as how previously it has been filled with transgressions and injustice.”

In another wording: “Doomsday will not not happen until the Earth is filled with transgressions, injustice and enmity, then a man of my lineage or Ahli Baiti will emerge, filling it with justice and fairness, as how previously it has been filled with transgressions and injustice.”

[ The first narration has been narrated by Al-Bazzar, Ibn ‘Adiy, Abu Nu’aim in Akhbaar Ashbahaan and Al-Haakim رحمهم الله while all other narrations, they have been transmitted by Imam Ahmad, Ibnu Hibban, Al-Haakim, Abu Nu’aim in al-Hilyah from Abi Sa’ied رضي الله عنه with a marfu’ status and Abu Nu’aim classified it sahih as well as Al-Haakim saying: “It’s Isnad are sahih according to the conditions of al-Bukhariy and Muslim” and Adz-Dzahabi agreed]

Al-Haakim also narrated from Abi Sa’ied رضي الله عنه with a marfu’ status with a different wording:
“Al-Mahdi will emerge among my ummah (muslims), Allah will make him to drink from the rain (there will be rain as a sign of Mercy), the Earth will lush with crops and wealth will be divided and distributed equally, prosperity will be overwhelming and the ummah will be honoured and he will live (in that state) for 7 or 8 years.” 

(Classified as sahih by Al-Haakim and Adz-Dzahabi as well as Ibnu Khaldun رحمهم الله).


Explanation of these ahaadeets by Scholars

The Books of Hadeets mentioned these hadeets of al-Mahdi amount to 36 books, and they are recorded in the 4 Sunans (ATNI – Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidzi, an-Nasaa-i and Ibn Maajah), Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Ibn Hibban, al-Mustadrak etc. (source: Aqidah Ahli Sunnah wal Atsar fi al-Mahdi al-Muntazor)

The accumulation and collection of these ahaadeets of al-Mahdi, together with the chains of narrations were done by Ibn Abi Haitsamah, Zuheir bin Harb (according to Ibn Khaldun), Abu Nu‘aim, as-Suyuti, Ibn Katsir “al-Fitan wal Malaahim”, Ibnu Hajar al-Makki, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Mullaa Ali al-Qaariy, Mar‘ie bin Yusuf al-Hambali, as-Son‘aaniy رحمهم الله and many others.

Majority of hadeets scholars confirmed the authenticity of these ahaadeets of al-Mahdi among them; al-Haakim, adz-Dzahabi, Abu Nu‘aim, Ibnul ‘Arabiy al-Maaliki, al-Qurthubi, Ibnu Taimiyah, Ibn Qayyim, al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar, as-Suyuti and their likesرحمهم الله . 

Hence do not be confused by anyone who claims that all these are weak or refute them or belied them.


2. The belief of Ahli Sunnah & others

a) Ahli Sunnah wal Jamaah’s Belief:

Al-Mahdi is a pious Caliph, blessed with the Guidance of Allah, will be made to rise as a reviver for this ummah and Allah will make this ummah honoured under his rule. Ibnu Khaldun رحمه الله said: 
“Let it be known, that it is a well known fact by the muslims of the past and present that in the End of Times, a man will rise from among the descendants of the Prophet or Ahli Bait, who will give strength to this religion, justice will prevail and he will be followed by the Muslims having the possesion over the whole muslim world. He is al-Mahdi and the Dajjal will also emerge, likewise all the other major signs after the advent of al-Mahdi as mentioned in those authentic narrations. Also, Jesus will then descend to kill the Dajjal, after that (the advent of al-Mahdi) or concurrently with it. Then Jesus will support and help him to kill the Dajjal and Jesus will pray behind him (al-Mahdi) as a follower (just that one single solat)” 
Do refer to al-Muqaddimah by Ibn Khaldun: 555.

We deliberately quoted from Ibn Khaldun to make clear the false claims that Ibn Khadun rejected all the hadis of al-Mahdi as weak and thus, Ibn Khaldun did not believe in the emergence of al-Mahdi. This isn’t true. Although he distrust the hadis of al-Mahdi, classifying them as weak, yet he accepted some of them as reliable – refer to pg 574 of his book.


b) Shi‘ite’s Belief:

Al-Mahdi is Muhammad bin Al-Hasan Al-‘Askariy a decendant of al-Husain bin Ali, not al-Hasan, the 12th and last Imam (leader), who went into hiding in an underground cave in Samaraa 1100 years ago, when he was about 5 years old. They believe that he is omni-present yet unseen and they are awaiting his comeback. A baseless belief without any proof from the texts nor common sense. What is the reason for him to live in an invisible state???


c) The Disbelievers who reject the emergence of al-Mahdi

They are a small group among those claiming themselves as part of Ahli Sunnah, but they do not study they the texts closely and know not the study of isnads (chains of narration). Many scholars refuted them and their arguments among the recent best works; the book:
(الرد على من كذب بالأحاديث الصحيحة الواردة في المهدي)
A Refutation against those who belie the authentic hadeets regarding al-Mahdi - written by Syeikh ‘Abdul Muhsin al-‘Abbad.

d) Rulers who claimed themselves as al-Mahdi: and coincidently, their names were al-Mahdi and were pious.

Among them the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mulhid ‘Ubaidillah bin Maimun Al-Qaddaah (d.322H), his grandfather was a Jew, yet claiming himself of Ahli Bait descent. Al-Mahdi, Muhammad bin Tumurt of Morocco d.524H.


e) The al-Kisaaniyah sect.

They regard Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyah as al-Mahdi living in the Mountain of “Rodwa”, being guarded by 2 lions, he has 2 fountains, one flowing with water and the other with honey. He went there with 40 men and nothing is heard about them till today, yet to those who believe in him, they are alive and will return.

In conclusion, according to Syeikh Ibnu Baazرحمه الله, “Ibn Katsir رحمه الله said in ‘Al-Fitan wal Malaahim’: 
In my opinion, it is concurrent with the descent of al-Masih Prophet Isa عليه السلام. The hadis of al-Harits indicated so: “Their Amir (leader) al-Mahdi” as in several narrations of Muslim, this is apparent and the most righteous opinion yet we cannot take it for certain. Wallahu a’lam.

Evidences show (although mere indications without certainty) that al-Mahdi will emerge at the time of Prophet Isa’s descent or a little earlier before that.

Wallahu a’lam.

[translated and summarized from the valuable book of asy-Syeikh Dr. Umar Sulayman al-Ashqar – al-Qiyaamah ash-Shughra]
 
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