Sunday, December 9, 2012

Adaa', Qadhaa' and I'aadah Prayer


The Prayer Times
‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr Narrated: “The Messenger of Allah said:

, وَقْتُ الظُّهْرِ إِذَا زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَكَانَ ظِلُّ الرَّجُلِ كَطُولِهِ مَا لَمْ يَحْضُرِ الْعَصْرُ وَوَقْتُ الْعَصْرِ مَا لَمْ تَصْفَرَّ الشَّمْسُ وَوَقْتُ صَلَاةِ الْمَغْرِبِ مَا لَمْ يَغِبِ الشَّفَقُ وَوَقْتُ صَلَاةِ الْعِشَاءِ إِلَى نِصْفِ اللَّيْلِ الْأَوْسَطِ وَوَقْتُ صَلَاةِ الصُّبْحِ مِنْ طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ مَا لَمْ تَطْلُعِ الشَّمْسُ فَإِذَا طَلَعَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَأَمْسِكْ عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ فَإِنَّهَا تَطْلُعُ بَيْنَ قَرْنَيْ شَيْطَانٍ   -




“The time for Zohor is when the sun inclines (to the West) and (till) one’s shadow is equal to his body, that is as long as it’s not the time for ‘Asar. The time for ‘Asar is as long as the sun has not turned yellowish red (at the Western horizon – near sunset). Whereas the time for Maghrib is as long as when there is twilight. The timeframe for the ‘Isya’ Prayer is till middle midnight. The Subuh prayer time is from the emergence of Fajar (as-Sadiq) and as long as it’s not sunrise yet. When the sun is rising, do not pray because it rises in between the two horns of the Satan” [1]

Asy-Syaikh al-Bassam made the following commentary after citing this hadits in Taudieh al-Ahkam:

1.      1.  In it (this hadits/narration) is the explanation of the Prayer Times which Allah Ta‘ala  legislated specifically for the 5 times obligatory prayers to be performed.

     2. (It also teaches us that) These 5 Prayers are not valid or accepted unless (if they are performed) within 
          these specified timeframes, due to His Command (the Quranic verse):

, ... فَأقيموا الصلاة إن الصلاة كانت على المؤمنين كتابا موقوتا   -

Hence do perform the Salat, for indeed the Salat is obligatory upon the believers at specified times ” (an-Nisa’: 103) and the narration of Ahmad (3071) from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Prophet said: “الوقت ما بين هذين” meaning “the timeframe is between these two” and in Bukhariy’s report (553) from Buraydah that the Prophet said: “Whoever misses his ‘Asar Prayer (not performing it within it’s timeframe), nullifies his good deeds (like an apostate/disbeliever)

Syeikh al-Islam said: “Time is irreversible, once it has passed, there is no possibility to perform the solat in it
    
6.   The time for Isya’ prayer is from the disappearance of the twilight to midnight. The majority of scholars view that this is the chosen/recommended timeframe and as for the validity timeframe (Isya’ is still considered valid) it is extended until the arrival of the Second Fajar (i.e. the time for the Subuh prayer). To some other scholars: It’s (Isya’ prayer) timeframe ends till midnight. It (the second opinion) is stronger in terms of evidence or proof….the scholars have differences in opinion in the issue of “the end of the recommended timeframe for the Isya’ prayer:

i.    al-Imam Ahmad (in a more popular narration in his school of fiqh): It ends at the end of the first 1/3 of the night. (This is also the later opinion of al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie) based on the authentic narration from ‘A-isyah: “They used to pray the Isya’ prayer in between the disappearance of the twilight to the first 1/3 of the night

ii.   al-Imam Abu Haniefah opined: The recommended timeframe ends at midnight. This is also another opinion in the asy-Syafi‘ie’s school of fiqh and another narration in Imam Ahmad’s school of fiqh. In al-Mughnie (by Ibn Qudamah, d:620H): It was the opinion of ats-Tsauriy, Ibn al-Mubarak, Abu Tsaur and the Ashab ar-Ra’yi (scholars of Koufah, Iraq) and one of the two views of asy-Syafi‘ie based on what was narrated (with an element of uncertainty in it’s narration – according to Ibn Qudamah) from Anas: “The Prophet delayed the Isya’ prayer until midnight” (NB al-Bukhariy: 572).

Whereas in al-Insaf, it mentions that al-Muwaffaq (Ibn Qudamah) asserted it in al-‘Umdah and it is the opinion chose by al-Qadi, Ibn ‘Aqiel, al-Majed (Majduddien Abul Barakat – the grandfather of Ibn Taimiyah), and Ibn ‘Abd al-Qawiy. It was also mentioned in al-Furu: This is obvious (i.e. a stronger and more righteous opinion).

Asy-Syeikh Ibn Sa‘diy said: This is true.

Syeikhul Islam said: If it is concluded as: until the middle of the night at times and until 1/3 occasionally, that would be more convincing.

Asy-Syeikh Muhammad bin Ibrahiem Ali asy-Syeikh said: The recommended time is until 1/3 of the night and in another narration until the middle of it and both times had been mentioned in authentic reliable narrations.

The night-time as determined in Syari‘ah’s legislation is from the dissappearance of the sun (i.e. sunset when the sun disappears from the Western horizon – at dusk) to the rise of the second Fajar – dawn or in other words; the beginning/arrival of the Subuh Prayer time)

iii. The Majority of scholars, among them the 4 renowned Imams of the 4 schools of fiqh and their followers: the recommended time is until the middle of the night, but  for those with special desperate needs like in the state of emergency or constrained by some urgent circumstances (darurah) the time frame of Isya’ is to the break of the second Fajar. [2]  

Pay-back or Making-up Prayers

As for the issue of making-up missed prayers due to a particular reason, not out of negligence and lack of awareness or weak iman, these narrations teach us what to do.

Before we continue with the narrations, let us be clear of the terms used by scholars with regards to the status of Obligatory 5 times Prayers in relation to the “time” it is being performed:

i.                    Ada’: a valid prayer performed within it’s timeframe. For example, Zohor is performed within the timeframe prescribed/legislated for it (from the arrival of Zohor time to the end of it’s time, manage to get a raka‘ah before the time for ‘Asar starts). This includes the “jama‘” or combined timeframes prayer of for eg. Zohor combined with ‘Asar. There are certain conditions to legislate and validate this “combined prayers”. A muslim performing “combined/jama‘ prayers, still gets to perform his Zohor with an “Ada’”status (within it’s timeframe) even if he prays the Zohor in ‘Asar Prayer’s timeframe. There is a dispute among scholars with regards to the issue of “one who overslept and missed his prayer” and “one who is unaware/totally forgotten his prayer” unintentionally, whether he is performing the prayer with an Ada’ status or not (not Ada’, automatically means Qada’).

ii.                  I‘adah: “re-do prayer” or “repeated prayer”. Whether it is voluntary prayers (Sunnat Prayers) e.g. one who had performed his Obligatory Prayer (for e.g. Zohor as a makmum or imam), then performs it again (as an imam or a makmum, not with the intention of Obligatory/Fardu Zohor, but rather a voluntary one. Like what Mu‘adz used to do – prayed Isya’ with the Prophet, then he would go to his people and lead them as their imam. As well as the following narration) or an Obligatory one. [Do take note that it is a consensus of the scholars: “One is forbidden to repeat any obligatory/Fardu Prayer which had been performed with all the conditions; the Arkan (compulsory/obligatory items) and Syurut (prerequisites) fulfilled”.

A re-do or repeat prayer is: an obligatory/Fardu prayer had been performed completely within it’s timeframe, but then, an item or more is not fulfilled from among the “Arkan” or “Syurut”. So one need to “re-do” or “repeat” the prayer. This is termed as al- I‘adah. As an example, a person prayed a complete Fard prayer of Zohor, but then, he realised that he actually prayed without wudu’, or part of his ‘aurah exposed through out the prayer and etc. He is to repeat/re-do his prayer, best within the timeframe and even if the time is over.

iii.                Qada’: Payback or Make-up Prayer: When one missed a Fardu prayer unintentionally, due to forgetfulness or unawareness or illness/coma/fainted, conditions/circumstances that make it impossible for him to pray or he overslept. Some scholars consider these as “Ada’” status not Qada’ due to the wording of “fal yu-addiha” in some narrations.   

These are the narrations

, ... فَكَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنِ اسْتَيْقَظَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  وَالشَّمْسُ فِي ظَهْرِهِ قَالَ فَقُمْنَا فَزِعِينَ ثُمَّ قَالَ ارْكَبُوا فَرَكِبْنَا فَسِرْنَا حَتَّى إِذَا ارْتَفَعَتِ الشَّمْسُ نَزَلَ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِمِيضَأَةٍ ... فَتَوَضَّأَ مِنْهَا وُضُوءًا دُونَ وُضُوءٍ ... ثُمَّ أَذَّنَ بِلَالٌ بِالصَّلَاةِ فَصَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْغَدَاةَ فَصَنَعَ كَمَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ قَالَ وَرَكِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  وَرَكِبْنَا مَعَهُ قَالَ فَجَعَلَ بَعْضُنَا يَهْمِسُ إِلَى بَعْضٍ مَا كَفَّارَةُ مَا صَنَعْنَا بِتَفْرِيطِنَا فِي صَلَاتِنَا ثُمَّ قَالَ أَمَا لَكُمْ فِيَّ أُسْوَةٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ فِي النَّوْمِ تَفْرِيطٌ إِنَّمَا التَّفْرِيطُ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ يُصَلِّ الصَّلَاةَ حَتَّى يَجِيءَ وَقْتُ الصَّلَاةِ الْأُخْرَى فَمَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَلْيُصَلِّهَا حِينَ يَنْتَبِهُ لَهَا...   -

“…and Rasulullah  was the first person to wake up among us and the sun had risen. We all were shocked when we got up. The Messenger commanded us to mount our horses and move off. So we moved off until the sun had risen high, we dismounted and he asked for a container of water and took his ablution. He made it a quick one. Then Bilal called out the Prayer Call (Azan) and he performed 2 raka‘ahs (of Qabliyah – prior to obligatory). Then he performed the (obligatory) Subuh Prayer and he performed it (as the imam) as per normal like how he did it everyday. After the prayer he mounted and moved off (with us). We started to blame ourselves for what we did (fearing Allah’s wrath). He then say: What’s wrong with all of you? When in it (this incident) you learnt an example. Then he say: There is no negligence in sleep and negligence is when one delays the prayer until another prayer time’s arrives. So whoever overslept, let him immediately perform his prayer when he wakes up…”[3]

Yazied bin al-Aswad narrated: I participated the Hijjatul Wada‘ (Hajj with the Messenger) and did perform the Subuh Prayer with Rasulullah [at Masjid Kheif] in Mina while I was a youngster:

" فَلَمَّا صَلَّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِذَا هُوَ بِرَجُلَيْنِ لَمْ يُصَلِّيَا فَدَعَا بِهِمَا فَجِيءَ بِهِمَا تَرْعَدُ فَرَائِصُهُمَا فَقَالَ لَهُمَا:

 , مَا مَنَعَكُمَا أَنْ تُصَلِّيَا مَعَنَا ؟  - قَالَا: قَدْ صَلَّيْنَا فِي رِحَالِنَا

قَالَ:  , فَلَا تَفْعَلَا إِذَا صَلَّيْتُمْ فِي رِحَالِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَدْرَكْتُمُ الْإِمَامَ لَمْ يُصَلِّ فَصَلِّيَا مَعَهُ فَهِيَ لَكُمْ نَافِلَةٌ -

“When Rasulullah completed his prayer, he noticed 2 men not joining the prayer, so he asked them to be brought forward to him and they came shivering (out of fear), he asked: What stopping you from joining us? They replied: We had performed our prayer in our tents. The Messenger then say: Do not do that again. Even if you have prayed in your tents and then you find the Imam is praying, you are to join him and it is considered a voluntary prayer for you..” [4]

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[1] NB Imam Muslim (as-Sahih: al-Masajid wa Mawadi‘ as-Solah: 966).

[2] Tawdieh al-Ahkam: 1/472-476

[3] NB Imam Muslim (as-Sahih: al-Masajid wa Mawadi‘ as-Solah: (B)55: 1099).

[4] NB Imam Ahmad and this is his version except what is in [ ] and 3 Imams of As-hab as-Sunan. It is classified Sahih by at-Tirmidzi and Ibn Hibban. Asy-Syeikh al-Albaniy also graded it Sahih. Apart from that, asy-Syeikh al-Albaniy also mentioned another version of the same meaning: “إذا جئت فصل مع الناس و إن كنت قد صليت” (If you come, join the people in prayer, even though you had performed your prayer) – NB Malik and others. Combining all these narrations, he classified them Sahih – Silsilat al-Ahadiets as-Sahiehah: v. 3, pg 324 (1001-1500) no: 1337.
 
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