Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Manner of Performing Dzikir after Solah (1)

Notes on "Lessons on Congregational Solah" for Wed, 19th Dec 2012 @ Salsabil after Isya'

The Manner of doing Dzikir & Doa after Obligatory Solat according to the Sunnah and Scholars

Much have been said by the common people pertaining to this matter. It is indeed saddening that we witness among the ummah, the people, making slanders and false accusation against one another over this issue, such as “they are opposing the Ahlis Sunnah wal Jama‘ah”, “they are the extremists”, “they are fanatics to their own belief and practices” and so on. They become divided with hatred against each other, opposing the teachings of Islam, whereby Islam encourages unity, solidarity in its ummah within the bond of the brotherhood of Islam. It is even worse, if such accusations are instigated by people known to be among the leaders and preachers of Islam, merely due to the differences in opinion over this issue.

The actual fact is, scholars long ago, had differences in opinion in this matter. They had the same good intention, Insya’ Allah, to steadfast to what is the most righteous. They issued their opinions based on the best knowledge they acquired and piety. But what about us???

The Great Major Scholars did advise us to examine their views, as they were mortals, normal human beings, who did make mistakes and as such they warned us against blind following them, in fact, they instructed us to follow the truth that we arrived at.

Among them al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie who said[1]:
i. “The sunnah of the Messenger of Allah reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allah has said, and it is my view.”[2]
 ما مِن أَحَد إلا وَ تَذْهَب عَليه سُنّة لرسول الله وَ تَعْزُب عَنه ، فَمَهْما قُلْتُ مِن قَوْل، أَوْ أَصَّلْتُ مِن أَصْل فيه عن رسول الله خِلاف ما قُلتُ؛ فَالْقَول ما قال رسول الله ، وَ هُوَ قَوْلي 

ii. “The Muslims are unanimously agreed that if a sunnah of the Messenger of Allah is made clear to someone, it is not permitted (haram) for him to leave it for the saying of anyone else.” [3]
 أَجْمَعَ المسلِمون عَلى أَنَّ مَن اسْتَبانَ لَهُ سُنَّة عَنْ رسول الله؛ لَمْ يَحِلْ لَه أَنْ يَدَعَها لِقَوْلِ أَحَدٍ 

iii. “In every issue where the people of narration find a report from the Messenger of Allah to be saheeh which is contrary to what I have said, then I take my saying back, whether during my life or after my death.”[4]
كُلُّ مَسْألَة صَحَّ فِيها الْخَبَر عَن رسول الله عِنْد أهْل النَقْل بِخِلاف مَا قُلتُ؛ فَأَنا راجِع عَنها فِي حَياتِي وَ بَعْد مَوْتي 

To follow a single teacher without learning from others is certainly discouraged compared to learning from as many teachers then evaluate based on knowledge (evidences) and piety, with the conscience that each and everyone of us will be accountable on the Day of Resurrection, for whatever we choose. As a parable, if we fall sick, we will get the best doctor and remedy for treatment, not just any doctor, or the one whose prescription known to cause allergies and very bad side-effects. When we talk about “cars” and other goods, we will ensure that we get genuine parts, but do we do the same when we talk about this Deen/Religion of Allah? Or it is with an attitude of “anything goes”?

By right, our attitude should be the same in choosing what is best, in worldly matters and matters of this Deen. Let us seek the best, to the best that we can. If previously, we know how to do the prostration (sujud), based on our childhood education, but now we gain the knowledge of the manner of doing Sujud the way the Messenger taught and described, based on the narrations and the commentaries from the scholars, what we have acquired and practicing now is certainly very much better, if not the best, as compared to the “childhood knowledge”. Having acquired that “new” knowledge, are we to blame and demean our “childhood teacher” who had imparted the “basic” knowledge of how to do the Sujud and prayer to us??? Instead, we are to be grateful and appreciative to them for what they taught us of the “basics”, to perform a valid prayer. Yet, should the “childhood teacher” be upset and angry at us, just because we improve our way of performing the Solat or that we now know better than him or that we are learning from another teacher?

Let us re-evaluate our attitude face to face with these verses:

“Then give good tidings to My slaves, they are those who would listen to the message and then would follow the best of it” [5]

“Let them beware, those who oppose him (the Messenger of Allah) in his command, that they will face tribulation or that they will suffer a dreadful torment”[6]

“And do not follow/say what you know not. Verily, the hearing, the sight, and the heart all will be questioned (on the Day of Resurrection)” [7]

The best guidance is the guidance of Prophet Muhammad and we are afraid to oppose his teachings, even though by following him, we are opposing others (scholars).

The following are the dzikir (Remembrance of Allah) and du‘a’ (supplication/invocation) to be performed after the Obligatory/Fard Prayers, taught by the Prophet, by means of authentic narrations from him and the commentaries made by scholars, excluding whatever dzikir taught by other than him. We do admit that they are still many of his teachings that we have not put to practice in our daily lives, so why should we be practicing what is doubtful, not from his teachings, or worse the product of man’s innovation and whims or desires, in matters of this religion, never permitted by the Lord Most High. Acts of worship are regarded as the sustenance for the soul and the soul is from the matters of the Unseen, only known to Allah, who will grant the unseen rewards.

Hence, matters of ‘Ibadah can only be determined by Allah and taught by the Prophet. Its unit, time, type, place, manner or way of performing the ‘Ibadah as well as the reason for it must be based on the Prophet’s teachings. If an ‘Ibadah is not based on this, we have no means to achieve certainty that the ‘Ibadah is beneficial for the soul. Let’s take Solat for example. If we pray 5 rakaats of Zohor intentionally or deliberately, instead of 4, that “extra” rakaat will make our Zohor prayer invalid. It is not beneficial for the soul, in fact it is harmful to it. If we pray 2 rakaats of voluntary prayer when the sun sets, this solat is rejected and are unlawful, haram. It is harmful for the soul. The type of Solat, whether obligatory or voluntary, is a factor that determines an acceptable prayer or invalid. If one performs the Solat in the toilet, his solat would not be accepted by Allah. The same goes to a person who changes the way or manner of the Solat, for example, he does the sujud before the ruku‘ in every rakaah. In brief, we are to follow the example set by the Prophet to ensure that our acts of worship are valid, beneficial and accepted by Allah.

Before we move on to discuss the differences in opinions of the scholars as to the manner of how to do these Dzikir and Du‘a’ after Obligatory Solat, here we clarify the “content” (i.e. the sayings/words to be said, what is to be said – not the manner how we say it) of the Dzikir & Du‘a’. Upon completion of the Solah, by saying the Tasleem; the Imam turns his head to his right shoulder, then to his left shoulder, only then do the ma'mums follow turning their heads right and left. Immediately after that, on their own, they say the following according to this order: (we will mention the ahadeets, later In sha’ Allah):

1. Say the “Istighfar” 3 times. i.e. “AstaghfirulLah”, “AstaghfirulLah”, “AstaghfirulLah” (without any additions) 
2. AlLahumma antas Salam, wa ming kas salam, Tabarakta ya Dzal Jalali wal Ikram. 
3. La ilaha illalLah wahdahu laa syariika lah. Lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu, wa huwa ‘alaa kulli syai ing qadiir once (except for Maghrib and Subuh/Fajar 10 times). 
4. AlLaahumma Laa maani‘a limaa a‘toyta, wa laa mu‘tiya limaa mana‘ta, wa laa yanfa‘u dzal jaddi ming kal jadd. (without other additional wording)

5. Tasbieh 33 times (Sub haanalLaah 33x), Tahmied 33 times (Alhamdulillaah) and Takbier 33 (AlLaahu akbar) = 99 (altogether) and complete them “100” with: Laa ilaaha illalLah wahdahu laa syariika lah. Lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu, wa huwa ‘alaa kulli syai ing qadiir. 
6. Recite ayat al-Kursiy: (from: AlLaahu Laa ilaaha illa huwal Haiyyul Qaiyuum) 
7. Recite surah al-Ikhlaas (Qul huwalLaahu ahad) and the 2 Mu’awidzatain (Qul a‘uudzu bi rabbil falaq) and (Qul a‘uudzu bi rabbin Naas).

Do take note that base on the narrations (which we will mention later), no: 1 – 4 come in sequence, and they are to be said first, but for the rest (no: 5-7) there is apparently no specific order, which is to be read first.

Before we move on to examine the ahadeets (plural for hadeets), let us analyse, the manner, how we do the dzikir and du‘a after the obligatory prayers, in accordance to what the renowned scholars had mentioned. What is meant by “the manner” here implies whether we are to do them aloud (al-jahr) or silently (sirr), together in congregation in one synchronized voice or individually, alone, as if whispering to our own selves.

The views of these scholars are based on the evidences of the al-Quran, the Sunnah and the practices of the Companions. In this way, we will justify this matter and address it with these scholars’ justification and arguments, all based on these evidences, thus, save ourselves from the dangers of speaking about this deen without knowledge. We do witness, among our people, someone who would claim himself as a religious teacher who is a staunch follower of Imam asy-Syafi‘ie, yet, he opposes Imam asy-Syafi‘ie in this matter, without prior research, but has the audacity to accuse those who are in reality, following the opinion of Imam asy-Syafi‘ie in this matter, as a heretic and deviated group, detoured from the true path of Ahli Sunnah.

Having made such wild accusations, not realizing the gravity of such statements, Imam asy-Syafi‘ie himself (may Allah shower him with His Mercy), is being accused with these allegations made by such religious teacher/preacher, who is impulsive and judgmental, making claims based on his desires.

The Scholars were in dispute in this issue and there are 2 opinions:

I. The 1st Opinion: It is prohibited to do these dzikir and du‘a’ aloud and in congregation.

Some of them stated it as a bid‘ah (an innovation in matters of the Deen which is prohibited and disapproved) and discouraged. Among those who were upon this view:

a. Among the scholars of Madzhab Malikiyah:

1. Imam Malik[8]himself:

There is a statement made by Imam Malik in which he explained what a regular appointed imam of a masjid should do after salam, as in al-Mudawwanah, (translation):
“Imam Malik stated with regards to an imam of a masjid who had led the prayer in congregation or a masjid in a village (Central Masjid Jamek): After performing the Tasliem, he should quickly stand and not to remain seated after every prayer. Unless he is an imam who is a traveller, not a regular appointed imam of the congregation (of the masjid), after doing the Tasliem, if he wishes to sit or prefers to rise and leave.” [9]

2. Imam al-Qarafiy [10]:

While elaborating on the principle of what differentiates a manner of doing the du‘a’ which is detestable and which is not, five factors of what is detestable in performing du‘a’, and he stated the third factor as:

“What is disapproved[11] that is when it becomes the very factor that stains the heart with impurity, being proud (takabbur) and riya’ (showing off), such that he is proud thinking too highly of himself, hence tainted his heart, sinful to his Lord more than obeying Him in that condition. Likewise for anyone who feels himself great when he performs the du‘a’ in front of others, fearing that he will be proud (takabbur) due to that, then the best for him is to avoid it, such that he’ll be saved.” [12]

3. Imam Ibn al-Haj [13]:

After explaining that it is disliked/discouraged to engage in a conversation in a masjid (that which disturbs the worshippers in the masjid) and it’s abomination, he said:

“And no one has the right to say: The recitation of the Qur’an and saying the dzikir aloud (jahr) and in congregation is allowed/permissible in the masjid,” He then elaborated on the opinions of scholars who asserted that doing dzikir in that manner is an abomination and their protests against it. He then continued saying: “If doing dzikir aloud in congregation has these damaging qualities, even if one particular person or a group is saved from these damaging qualities, or from some of them, yet there is no guarantee that others might be saved from them [14]

4. Imam asy-Syatibi [15]:

He clarified: Doing the Du‘a’ (supplication/invocation) in congregation as a routine is not from the practice (teachings) of the Messenger .[16]

It is recommended that this statement of his be referred to his monumental book al-I‘tisam, as it was a book he wrote to clearly explain his stance of not doing dzikir and du‘a’ in congregation after leading the obligatory prayers.

b. Among the Scholars of Madzhab asy-Syafi‘iyah:

1. Imam asy-Syafi‘ie [17] himself:

al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie said after quoting the hadeets of Ibn 'Abbaas:

“I choose (in my opinion) the imam and the ma’mums, do their dzikir (remembrance of) Allah individually – not in congregation, after the Tasliem ending the solat, and doing it (the dzikir) quietly, unless he is an imam who feels the need for people to learn from him (the dzikir – content, what is to be said after obligatory prayers – translator), so he says it aloud until he sees that they have learnt from him, he says it quietly, because Allah says: و لا تجهر بصلاتك و لا تخافت بها (Surah al-Isra’: 17:110) 
[…Neither say your prayer aloud, nor say it in a too low tone, but seek a middle course between."] that is, WalLahu Ta‘ala a‘lam, the Du‘a’.[18] “Wa la tajhar”, (means) (do not) raise/say aloud (your voice), “wa la tukhafit”, (means) such that you cannot even hear yourself...”

He then continued:
“To my understanding, the Prophet did say it aloud for a while, that is, as in the hadeets of Ibn ‘Abbas and hadeets of Ibn az-Zubayr, so that people could learn from him, because generally, all the narrations, that we have recorded, together with this and others, do not mention after Tasliem, any Tahliel nor Takbier. Indeed Ummu Salamah mentioned his stay (sitting after prayer) for a while, but did not say that he did the Dzikir aloud, and to me, he did not stay for a while, except to do the Dzikir quietly.[19] He (also) said: I encourage that the praying person, whether (he prayed) individually or as a follower in congregation, to prolong his Dzikir after Solah, and to make a lot of Du‘a’, with the hope that they (the Du‘a’) will be accepted (since they are supplicated) after the Obligatory Prayer.”
And this was his statement in al-Umm.

Al-Baihaqiy and others justified his (al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie) interpretation of the verse based on the hadeets of ‘A-ishah when she said:
“With regard to the Qur’anic verse: و لا تجهر بصلاتك و لا تخافت بها (Surah al-Isra’: 17:110), it was revealed with regard to Du‘a’” narrated by al-Bukhariy and Muslim. Thus, likewise is the view of our scholars (the major scholars of Syafi‘ie Madzhab): Dzikir and Du‘a’ after Solah, both are encouraged to be said quietly. Unless he is an imam who needs to teach the people, so he says them aloud for the people to learn. Once they have learnt and acquired the knowledge, he says them quietly…[20]

We can clearly see that this is the view of al-Imam asy-Syafi‘ie and he taught that Dzikir and Du‘a’ after Solah, to be said silently and individually, not in congregation, and he cited the verse of the Qur’an for both; Dzikir and Du‘a’.

2. Imam al-Baihaqiy [21]:

al-Imam al-Baihaqiy said in as-Sunan al-Kabir:
“Bab/Chapter: (the Practice which is) chosen (i.e. recommended) for the imam and the ma’mum is to lower their voices in dzikir; then he said:: Bab (Chapter on): The Imam says his dzikir aloud if he likes the people to learn from him.”[22] 
He then quoted the statement of Imam asy-Syafi‘ie under these 2 chapters, as we have read. Then, he cited a number of hadeets and sayings of the Companions to support asy-Syafi‘ie’s view.

3. Imam an-Nawawi [23]:

al-Imam an-Nawawi said:
“(The practice which is in accordance to) the Sunnah is to make the Du‘a’ after the Tasliem silently (sirr), unless he is an imam who wishes to teach the congregation the Du‘a’, then he does it aloud...” [24]

c. Among the scholars of Madzhab al-Hanabilah (Hambali):

1. Imam Majduddiin Abul Barakat [25] :

He said:

“It is encouraged for the imam to say the dzikir with a low voice/quietly after the prayer due to the apparent meaning of these texts (narrations), (then he quoted them) and based on the command of Allah Ta‘ala: { ادعوا ربكم تضرعا و خُفْيَةً } (Surah al-A‘raf: 7:55) [Call on your Lord (Invoke Him) with humility and in private...]
and He Ta‘ala also said: { و اذكر ربك في نفسك تضرعا و خِيْفَةً } (Surah al-A‘raf : 205) [And let you remember your Lord in your (very) soul, with humility and in reverence, without loudness in words...] and if he say it aloud, at times or in some of the Dzikir to teach others, so that they can hear him or with other righteous reasons, then it is still permissible...”[26]


[1]Ibn Hazm said in Usul al-Ihkam (6/118): "Indeed, all the fuqahaa' whose opinions are followed were opposed to taqleed, and they forbade their companions from following their opinion blindly. The sternest among them in this regard was Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah), for he repeatedly emphasised, more than anyone else, following the authentic narrations and accepting whatever the proof dictated; he also made himself innocent of being followed totally, and announced this to those around him. May this benefit him in front of Allaah, and may his reward be of the highest, for he was the cause of great good."

[2] NB al-Hakim with a continuous chain until Imam asy-Syafi‘ie himself; as in “Tariekh Dimasyqi” by Ibn ‘Asakir 15/1/3 and “I‘lam al Muwaqqi‘ien”: 2/363 and 364, as well as al-Iqaz pg: 100.

[3] Ibnul Qayyim: 2/ 361, al-Fullaniy pg. 68.

[4] Abu Nu‘aim “al-Hilyah”: 9/107, al-Harawi: 47/1, Ibnul Qayyim “‘lam al Muwaqqi‘ien”: 2/363, al-Filaniy pg. 104.

[5] Al-Qur’an: Surah az-Zumar: 17-18

[6] Al-Qur’an: Surah an-Nur: 24:63

[7] Al-Qur’an: Surah al-Isra’: 36

[8] Malik bin Anas bin ‘Amir bin ‘Amru bin al-Harits al-Asbahi, Imam Darul Hijrah, 1 of the 4 Imams of the 4 most popular Madzhabs and was regarded as the founder. He died in 179H. He was the teacher Imam asy-Syafi‘ie and many other respected scholars. Among his works: al-Muwatta’.

[9] al-Mudawwanah al-Kubro: 1/44

[10] Ahmad bin Idries bin ‘Abdur Rahman Abul ‘Abbas Syihabuddien as-Sanhaji al-Qarafiy al-Maliki. Ahli (a major scholar) in Fiqh, Usul Fiqh, Tafsir, he died in 684H. Among his works: al-Furuq, Tanqieh al-Fusul etc.

[11] "Yukrah” Arabic can be understood as “disliked” and it connotes “makruh – detestable/discouraged” or “haram – prohibited”. Yet most obviously, he meant it as Haram (prohibited/sinful) because “riya’” (showing off and not offering an act of worship with sincerity) is a sin and a sinful act is Haram.

[12] Anwar al-Buruq wa Anwa‘ al-Furuq: 4/300-301

[13] Muhammad bin Muhammad Abu ‘Abdillah al-‘Abdariy al-Fasi, the great scholar of many disciplines and was very antagonistic towards bid‘ah, died in 737H. Among his works: al-Madkhal ila Tanmiyati a‘mal,etc.

[14] al-Madkhal: 1/107

[15] Abu Is-haq Ibrahiem bin Musa bin Muhammad al-Lakhmiy al-Gharnati asy-Syatibi al-Maliki a major scholar and jurist (ahl ijtihad), al-Hafiz, among the few scholars who were regarded as anylists, master of multiple disciplines. Among his great works: “al-Muwafaqat fie Usul asy-Syarie‘ah” and “al-I‘tisam”. He died in the year 790H.

[16] al-I‘tisam: 1/219 – “al-I‘tisam” was authored by him as a refutation and served as an explanation to what his teacher and some other scholars who accused him as blameworthy for not leading the congregation in making du‘a’ after the obligatory prayers. Eventually, this book became among the best books ever written on bid‘ah and in giving the explanation wrt the meaning of bid‘ah, the types and catogaries of bid‘ah, how to identify bid‘ah and the harms and damages that it creates as easily discerned by the mental faculty (‘aqli) and naqli (the text of al-Qur’an, as-Sunnah, words of the Sahabat and the pious predecessors)

[17] Muhammad bin Idries bin al-‘Abbas al-Qurasyi, one of the 4 Imams of the most popular Madzhabs, he died 204H. Among his writings: al-Umm, ar-Risalah,, Ahkam al-Qur’an, Ikhtilaf al-Hadiets etc.

[18] We observe here, this great Imam was explaining about Dzikir after Obligatory Solat and he cited the text of the Qur’an and it’s interpretation as the evidences supporting his opnion, and although he stated that this verse is pertaining to “Du‘a’”, yet he is implying that this is applicable to both, Dzikir and Du‘a’, not to be done in Congregation, but rather individually and not aloud, but instead quietly. Walhamdulillaah.

[19] It should be clear from this, especially for those who acquired the knowledge of Usul Fiqh, that this great Imam actually “reconciled” between the narrations which give the idea that the Dzikir was done by the Prophet aloud (as in the narration of Ibn ‘Abbas and others) and the many narrations indicating that it was done quietly by the Prophet. Narrations are to be accumulated and if there is any apparent contradiction between them, they are to be reconciled and resolved, leaving no avenue for misleading conclusions, taking into account one or two narrations only and neglecting others, especially those which imply the contrary. As the principle states: “al-Jam‘u awla min at_Tarjieh”. Concluding a ruling from ahadeets without knowledge of Usul Fiqh and taking only one or a few hadeets and neglecting others pertaining to the same matter, is a form of misguidance, as one is not obeying the Prophet in totality, not taking evidences of the Shari‘ah as an entity. If one did so out of ignorance, yet he sincerely seek the truth he should repent for his mistake committed out of ignorance and may Allah forgive him. But if he is aware of such ahadeets, but deliberately neglect them, to proove what is contrary to the Sunnah as a worthy thing to do, then we leave his case to Allah and we identify him as one who is not reliable, a follower of his own whims and desire. It came to our knowledge, that some religious leaders, made Dzikir and Du‘a’ aloud and claim that “this is the practice of the Prophet” by quoting the hadeets of Ibn ‘Abbas only, which in it Ibn ‘Abbas said (translation): “I used to know that they (the Prophet and Companions) completed their obligatory prayer, when I hear their Takbier and Tahliel…” this is very misleading conclusion. Some others quote the same hadeets and claimed with that, “it is a matter of dispute”, as if there is no reconciliation and the pious predecessors like Imam asy-Syafi‘ie never did so or unaware of it.

[20] Al-Umm: 1/126, al-Majmu‘: 3/450

[21] Ahmad bin al-Husayn bin ‘Aliy, Abu Bakrin al-Baihaqiy, Ahli (‘alim) hadeets, fiqh and was recognized as the strongest defender of Imam asy-Syafi‘ie’s Madzhab of his era, he died 458H. Among his works: as-Sunan al-Kabir (al-Kubro), Dala-il an-Nubuwwah, Syu‘ab al-Iman, Manaqib asy-Syafi‘ie etc..

[22] as-Sunan al-Kubro: 2/184.

[23] Yahya bin Syaraf bin Hasan Abu Zakariya Muhyiddien an-Nawawi ad-Dimasyqi asy-Syafi‘ie. A major scholar in the field of hadeets, fiqh, al-Hafiz, the linguist, the historian, who died in 676H. Among his great works: Raudat at-Talibien wa ‘Umdat al-Muftiyien, al-Majmu‘ Syarh al-Muhadzdzab (he completed only a third of it), Riyad as-Salihien, 40 Hadeets and Commentary, al-Adzkar etc.

[24] Raudat at-Talibien: 1/368, al-Majmu‘: 3/487.

[25] ‘Abdus Salam bin ‘Abdillah bin al-Khadar bin ‘Aliy al-Harraniy, Ibn Taimiyah al-Jadd (the grandfather), Syaikh (Grand Teacher of) al-Hanabilah, Master of Fiqh, the Most Renowned Fiqh Scholar of his time (590 – 1 Shawwal 652H), (grandfather of Syeikhul Islam) and as for his grandson who was the famous Syaikhul Islam, Taqiyuddin Ahmad bin ‘Abdul Haliem al-Harrānī ad-Dimasyqī (w.728H). Among his works: al-Muharrar fi al-Fiqh, al-Ahkam, Syarh al-Hidayah etc.– Tahdzieb as-Siyar: 3/299 (5918).

[26] Tas-hih al-Furu‘ oleh Imam al-Mardawiy: 1/455

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