Friday, February 22, 2013

Manner of Performing Zikir after Solah (5)

<Notes on "Lessons on Congregational Solah" for Wed, till 20th Feb 2013 @ Salsabil after Isya'

Pg 55

“And all that he (Syaikh ash-Shuyukh[1]) said are problematic, do not comply to the principles of knowledge, especially in matters of worship (‘Ibadat) – which is the very issue we are dealing with/discussing – since it is not permissible for anyone among the creations of Allah, to innovate in Sharie‘ah, from his own opinion, something which no daleel/proof stands to support (or indicate) it, because that is the very thing known as bid‘ah, and in this matter, it is the very same thing, since there is no daleel/proof in it, to take it that the du‘a’ is to be offered aloud for the congregation after the obligatory prayers all the time, as how the sunnahs (matters based on the Prophet’s teachings) are performed, such that the one who is not performing it (i.e not performing du‘a’ in congregation) is to be regarded as one who opposses the entire Muslim Community, estranged, ostracized, and till the end of what he mentioned and every single thing that has no daleel/proof supporting it is a bid‘ah (an innovation).


As a matter of fact, those words (of Shakh ash-Shuyuukh) imply that following the later generations of blindfollowers is better than following the pious predecessors (as-Salaf)! Even if it is from one of the permissible matters (it is not allowed to be followed), so how can it be permitted if it is two different matters, one is for certain correct and the other doubtful? Such that the doubtful is followed while the one which is undoubtedly correct is being neglected and yet the one following it (the doubtful) is to be praised.?!” [2]

Then he cited a few examples, then continued:

“The author of al-‘Utbiyyah – together with it’s Sharh: “al-Bayan w at-Tahsiel”: 1/392 – said: (al-Imam) Malik was asked with regard to a man, delighted by a matter, performs prostration of gratitude to Allah? So he (Malik) replied: This is not to be done, this (was not) from what practised by the people (Companions and at-Tabi‘ien). It was said to him: Indeed Abu Bakr as-Siddieq () as they mentioned, made prostration of gratitude to Allah on the Day of Yamamah. Have you not heard of that? He (Malik) responded saying: I have never heard of that and to me, they have lied using the name of Abu Bakr. This is from misguidance, that is when someone heard one thing, then he claims: This matter, I have never heard of any dispute pertaimning to it. It was then said to him (Malik): We have asked you to know what is your opinion so that we can refute that with it (your view). He (Malik) then said: We bring forth to you with another thing (point), what you have not heard from me. The Prophet was victorious and those came after him too were successful in opening new territories (for the Muslims), have you ever heard anyone among them who performed like this? (If at any other time, someone comes to you with this kind of thing), and it is happening among them (doing that act – translator) and practised in their hands (commonly practised by them - translator) what never been heard (not narrated) from them, then you should just use this (proof), because if it has been practised by them (the Prophet and Companions), it would have been mentioned (in narrations from them – translator), as this is something that happened during their time, but have you ever heard any of them prostrated (for such occasion - translator)?This is a matter they unanimously agreed, (i.e.) when a matter which you never knew it, you are to leave it (neglect it)…(end quote from Imam Malik - translator) this is the complete narration”

The question and answer from him (al-Imam Malik 93-179H), if we take it, provided the proof of what previously mentioned.

The main point of the question is that, Bid‘ah is to be understood as – for example (from the narration from Malik – translator) – It is an act which the Shari‘ (The Legislator of Sharie‘ah – Allah) left untold of it’s ruling, in doing or neglecting it, thus it has not been given a ruling specifically, hence the original ruling would be; it is permissible to do it and likewise it is permissible to neglect it.” [3] (from the question)

Then he said:

“And the main point of the meaning of Malik’s answer is that; an untold ruling of to act or to neglect here – when there is a reason for it – is the consensus from everyone who is not telling is that there is not to be any addition of what is (known) before/previously/in the pass, since if it is appropriate in Sharie‘ah or widely being practised, they would have act upon it or performed it, because they (the Salaf) were the better lot to have acquired/discern it and the earliest to do and perform it.”



[1] See footnote no: 31 – it is at this point, in this chapter, al-Imam asy-Syatibi started to refute his teacher’s arguments. Since it is rather difficult for any lay man who has not been exposed to the technicalities of the terms of Usul al-Fiqh, we try to simplify here on Bid‘ah Idafiyah, as he explained. Bid‘ah Haqiqiyah (Actual/Real Bid‘ah) is not supported with any daleel, for example, offering Solat everytime one enters his office, fasting at night, paying obligatory Zakat by giving away furniture, going round a masjid as Tawaf or Haj to Baitul Maqdis. This type of Bid‘ah, is clear to any muslim with a sound mind knowing the basic teachings of Islam and is able to know this type of Bid‘ah. As for Bid‘ah Idafiyah, a lay man not knowing the basis of the rulings in Islam might fall prey to misleading conclusions and misguided people or “scholars”. This type of Bid‘ah, simply means, it is a Bid‘ah, but it is supported by a daleel or a few daleels which apparently seem to support that Bid‘ah, but in reality, these daleels are misinterpreted and wrongly understood and thus the misleading conclusions and misguided rulings are derived from them. The Quranic texts and the Sunnah (Authentic Ahadeets) must be accumulated and understood as one entity, if there be any apparent contradiction between them, they are to be reconciled and resolved by means of al-Jam‘u (such that with the reconciliation, all the texts are put to practice and applicable in every aspect), and if there is no way for doing al-Jam‘u, then scholars resort to an-Naskh, some of the daleels had been abrogated and others are implemented (as long as there are supportive evidences to conclude so). This is still a way of reconciliation. Or else, as a last resort, they make at-Tarjieh, to take the strongest daleels which provide certainty and neglect those which are weak. The above was outlined by the Great Imam asy-Syafi‘ie in ar-Risalah. Apart from that, there are daleels which are al-‘Umum/al-‘Am (general) – eg. When Allah made Haj obligatory, He Precsribed it to all of mankind (3: 97) and there are those which are al-Khas/at-Takhsies (specific) – eg. “The records of deeds are lifted from 3 types of people…” such that not everyone, eg an insane person, is obliged to perform it, and others al-Mutlaq (not restricted to any aspect; description/manner/number) – eg. “It is made unlawful for you to eat carcass” (5:3), to be understood with al-Muqayyad (restricted to certain aspects; description/manner/number) – eg. “and dead sea creatures are lawful” hence carcass of creatures living on land are the ones made unlawful, and other daleels al-Mujmal (overall indication/implication) – eg, “the Prayers are made obligatory in the Qur’an but not described in detail”, to be co-related to al-Mubayyan or al-Mufassal (detailed) – eg “the Description of the Prophet’s Prayer in as-Sunnah”. We give some more egs; The hadeets: “The prayer in congregation is more superior than the prayer done alone…” is not applicable to Tahiyyat al-masjid or Rawatib (such that an-Nawawi categorized the Sunnah Prayers, to be done in Congregation or otherwise - al-Majmu': 4/60). Doing them in jama‘ah is a Bid‘ah (manner). According to asy-Syafi‘ie: “There is no Azan nor Iqamah except for the 5 (obligatory) Prayers” (al-Majmu‘:3/83) Calling it out for funeral procession is a Bid‘ah (time/occasion). Therefore, these are to be performed as how the Prophet did. So if people do Dzikir and Salawat in Congregation citing verses of the Qur’an like “Do make remembrance of Allah (plural form)…” or “O you (plural) who believed, send prayers of Salawat upon him” and assuming that it is permissible, then they have not followed the ways of the predecessors in understanding and deriving rulings from the Sacred texts, not applying them as how the Prophet had taught and set as example. So when daleels are not accumulated and reconciled, hence not understood correctly, that is how and when Bid‘ah Idafiyah occurs. Wallahu a‘lam. It is clear to us now that an-Nawawi categorized the voluntary Solat, how to perform it, in congregation or not, all based on as-Sunnah and asy-Syafi‘ie disallowed Azan and Iqamah except for 5 Obligatory Prayers, based on the Sunnah and all these are proofs; matters of ‘Ibadah/worship is not permissible unless there is a daleel for it.

[2] al-I‘tisam : 2/262-263 (pdf page: 258 – for personal reference)

[3] Ibid: 2/265-266 (pdf page: 261 – for personal reference)
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