Tuesday, August 5, 2014

Manner of performing Zikir after Solah (6 - end)

Continuation & Completion of: Manner of performing zikir after solah (5)

Al-Hafiz Ibn Rajab[1] (rahimahullaah) in his book “Jami‘ al-‘Ulum wa al-Hikam” page 183, said:

This hadeets is a fundamental principle of the principles of Islam and it is like a scale to (measure/weigh) deeds/acts of worship at their face-value…likewise every act of worship which is not legitimised by Allah and His Messenger is repelled back to the doer and every innovation introduced in this religion, what has not been made legitimised by Allah and His Messenger is not part of the Deen at all and discarded.” 

Then he (rahimahullaah) continued (pg.184):

We speak right here (he (rahimahullaah) said earlier that he will elaborate more on  Bid‘ah when he arrives at the commentary on hadeets no: 28 - translator) with regard to acts of worship which have not been legitimised by the Legislator of Sharie‘ah (ash-Shari‘ i.e Allah the Lord Most High – trans.) and that they are rejected, Verily this hadeets clearly shows literally that every single good deed (or act of worship) which is not legitimised is rejected. And it also shows from the underlying meaning of it, that each single good deed (act of worship) which is legitimised is not rejected. What is meant by {أمره – amrihi - legitimacy} here, is His Religion and His Laws…so the meaning is: whoever performed a deed (act of worship) out of the limit of the Laws of this Deen (Religion of Islam – what has never been legitimised) and not restricted to the Law of Shara‘, it is rejected.

On page 783, in his commentary on hadeets no: 28, he (rahimahullaah) clarified further:

[sub-topic: Every Innovation/Bid ‘ah is misguidance] – His (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement: {Every innovation/bid‘ah is misguidance} is from his eloquency in speech (which was a miracle ordained by Allah to him (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam)), succint, such that nothing escapes from it, and it is a fundamental principle of the principles of the Deen (Religion/Islam) and it is similar to his  (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) saying: {Whoever introduces in the matter of this religion of ours what we have never made legitimised, it is rejected}. Thus anyone who introduces or innovates something and associates it to the religion, when it has no origin from this Deen, it is returned to him (repelled) as it is a misguidance and this Deen disowns it, whether it is from the matters of Beliefs, Acts of Worship or Saying/Speech, both outwardly manifested or hidden in one’s innerself.

Al-Imam an-Nawawi (rahimahullaah) (died: 676H) in Sharh Sahih Muslim quoted:
وقال الإمام الحافظ أبو عمرو بن عبد البَرّ : كلّ مَن أَحْدَث في الدِّين فهو مِن المطرودين عن الحوض كالخوارج والروافض وسائر أصحاب الأهواء
al-Imam al-Hafiz Abu ‘Amr bin ‘Abdil Barr (rahimahullaah - died: 463H – trans.) said: Whoever innovates in matters of this religion, then he is among those cast aside from the Cistern/Pool (al-Hawd) like the Khawarij, the Rawafid (the Shi’ites) and other followers of desires…”

Al-Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah - d: 751H) said:
فإنَّ تَرْكه صلى الله عليه وسلم سُنَّة كما أنَّ فِعْله سُنة ، فإذا استحببنا فِعل ما تركه ؛ كان نظيرَ استحبابنا ترك ما فعله ، ولا فرق
For indeed, in his (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) neglecting of an action is a Sunnah as how his actions are a Sunnah, such that if we were to take a liking for an act which was neglected by him (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), it is the same as our liking for neglecting what he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam)  performed, no difference.[2] for that reason, al-Imam ash-Shafi‘ie (rahimahullaah - d: 204H) said: “ولكنا نتبع السنة فعلاً أو تركًا” meaning: “But instead we follow as-Sunnah in doing something or neglecting it” as quoted by al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar[3].

al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar[4] (rahimahullaah - d: 852H) also said: “الأصل في العبادة التوقف” meaning: “The original principle in matters of worship is that it is solely based on revelation”. [5] In another occasion he said: “التقرير في العبادة إنما يكون عن توقيف” meaning: “The basis for matters of worship (‘ibadah) is only derived from Revelation per se”. [6]

Besides them, Ibn Daqieq al-‘Eid, an-Nasafi, ash-Shawkaniy and many others (rahimahumullaah) made the same statement and held onto the same principle.

Having said all these from the real true scholars, we fear that al-‘Alawi and al-Ghumari were doing what the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said:
من تعلم العلم ليباهي به العلماء ، أو يماري به السفهاء ، أو يصرف به وجوه الناس إليه أدخله الله جهنم
Whoever seeks knowledge to argue and dispute with the scholars, or fool and confuse the ignorant people or to turn people’s faces to him, Allah will make him to enter Hell [7]

Now we will mention the evidences used by both sides;

B.     The evidences and arguments of those who permitted doing Dzikir and Du‘a’ in congregation and aloud after the 5 fard/obligatory prayers.
  1. They say: there are narrations which mentioned the Prophet doing it.
1.      What has been narrated in authentic narrations that the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), after completing the prayer would say: the “لآ إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له ، له الملك و له الحمد... [8].
2.      It has also been narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) upon completion of the Solah would say: “لا إله إلا الله ....اللهم لا مانع لما أعطيت ..
This means that his (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) dzikir could be heard by the Companions and therefore, it is permissible to say them aloud.
II.    Some of these scholars allowed it with certain conditions i.e. as long as people do not have the wrong idea that they (the Dzikir and  Du‘a’) are not part of the Solat itself, whether supererogatory or obligatory or it’s additions and this applies to all the Du‘a’ and Dzikir after the obligatory Prayers

The Conclusion – the righteous and stronger view to be followed and practised.
If we examine closely, carefully and justly, for the sake of arriving at the truth based on the evidences of both opinions (many others not mentioned), it is very clear to us that the safe way and simultaneously preserving the actual original teaching closest to the Prophets’ is the view which Prohibits Dzikir and Du‘a’ in Congregation. This was the opinion of the Great Scholars like al-Imam Malik and al-Imam ash-Shafi‘ie from among the Salaf and al-Imam al-Baihaqiy, an-Nawawi and others (may Allah bless them always with His Mercy) who came after the Salaf.

The main reason why this is the righteous view, as we have understood, those who permitted doing Dzikir and Du‘a’ in congregation and aloud after the Obligatory Prayers made this conclusion, based on evidences which are general in their indication, rather indirect than directly understood. They merely cited the du‘a’ and dzikir being said by the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) after the Obligatory Congregational Prayer, not the manner how the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said them. Our discussion is pertaining to the manner not the content of the Dzikir, as has been mentioned in so many narrations that he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not sit long, in fact, it was for a very short while, after concluding the prayer with the Tasliem (salam),  to do the Dzikir after Prayers and the wording in the narrations vividly potrays that he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did it individually, for his (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) personal invocation, as highlighted by al-Imam al-Imam asy-Syatibi (rahimahullaah). It is not the issue of whether he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) made Dzikir and Du‘a’ after these Prayers or not. As all agreed that the Messenger did teach the Companions to do Dzikir and Du‘a’ after these Prayers – but with regard to the manner, he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not lead them and the Companions narrated this – i.e. he did not do them in Congregation nor saying them aloud but rather silently except a few lines. Not only did the Companions, as the best of this ummah, narrated that, they practised likewise and this was understood by the people among the best group of this ummah, the Salaf , the likes of al-Imam Malik and al-Imam ash-Shafi‘ie (rahimahumallaah).

Apart from that, there is no narration from the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), not even from the Companions (radhiyalLaahu 'anhum) after he (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) passed away, that they ever did so. So they never performed Dzikir and Du‘a’ in congregation. That was the very reason Imam asy-Syatibiy classified it under Bid‘ah Idafiyah.  A bid‘ah which one from aspect has it’s supportive evidences to proove it as not a Bid‘ah, since there are evidences to support that it is a legitimised item. However from other aspects, of how, how many, where and when it is being done, it has never been made legitimised by the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) nor the Companions.  In this case or issue for example, true enough that Dzikir is a legitimised act of worship and a believer, a muslim, should perform this act of worship, especially after Solat. But the manner of how it is done that is in congregation, is a bid‘ah, never been set as an example by the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam).

So the manner is Bid‘ah, an innovation and doing Dzikir and Du‘a’ in other than the manner the Prophet taught is a  bid‘ah idafiyah as clearly stated by al- Imam asy-Syatibi and others.
This was what Syeikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyah (rahimahullaah) asserted: “No doubt and it is crystal clear that the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) never did so…if he had done so, the Companions, then the narrators among at-Tabi‘un, then their disciples after them, would have narrated it as how every other thing (of the teachings of he Prophet and the Companions) they narrated to us.”[9]

Apart from that, we are to evaluate and analyse whatever we received of information base on important fundamental disciplines of knowledge like for example, Mustalah al-Hadiets, Usul Fiqh and so forth. The reason being, anyone can say anything as they like with regard to this Deen of Islam (contrary to what ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubaarak (rahimahullaah) said: al-Isnaad is from the essence of this deen, without al-Isnaad, anyone would say whatever he wants) and he/she seems to rely on a proof or proofs (from the texts of the Qur’an and Hadeets). However, these are the points as a guideline:

1.      As mentioned, one must have “proofs” to say anything about this Deen, that would be considered as part of this Deen. So if someone say something about the belief and so on of this Deen, without any proof, it is totally rejected (al-Qiyas or analogy in deriving rulings is very related to the texts, so it is still base on proofs). 
  1. We are to ensure that the proof is a valid proof to be the basis of any religious conclusion/ruling; i.e. it is tuly a verse of the Qur’an or a sahih (authentic) hadeets, not da‘ief (weak) or maudu‘ (fabricated).
  2. Whether the argument or justification based on that proof is correct and righteous; meaning, is it in accordance to the understanding, interpretation of the Companions and acted upon in compliance to their practices or otherwise. In this case or issue we are dealing with, we know that the Companions (radhiyalLaahu 'anhum), by means of the narrations of those who were closest to their time, like al-Imam Malik and al-Imam ash-Shafi‘ie (rahimahumullaah), were among those who held the first opinion, that is prohibited to be done in congregation and aloud. This is the best view to be followed beyond doubt, since this is the one in accordance to the Sunnah and asserted by those who knew the practices of the Companions and their disciples, as compared to the other view, those who permitted it (Dzikir aloud in congregation) as they were scholars from the 600th Hijriyah and after.  Wallahu a‘lam.

Indeed, it is very misfortunate, saddens us a lot in today’s world, some of us who fear the rejection of people, holding on to the ways of the ancestors, even though it is against the Prophetic teaching of our beloved Messenger (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), with the claim that they do not want to cause a confusion or dispute among the masses, without doing an extensive research to get to the best of what has been taught by the Prophet and the Companions, and even the actual teachings of al-Imam ash-Shafi‘ie (rahimahullaah), they do and practice, as how the people want them to do, merely pleasing the people. Some even defended their practices by citing a one-sided view, I mean, not even mentioning the opposite view, to convince the masses (who are being betrayed here, since they did not get the true and correct information) and with that, the misinformed masses, will blame those who would follow the more righteous view, as heretic, disrespectful of the ‘ulama’, made erroneous interpretations of the hadeets and narrations, followers of desire…and the list of name calling goes on. Isn’t this is the very cause of dissension and divide among fellow muslims and those offering their prayers in congregation in the masjids? Worst, the people unintentionally described the  scholars, and even the Companions and the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) himself with those vile harsh words without knowledge. Allaahul Musta‘aan.

It is in fact more blameworthy, as it is a sinful conclusion, when one would say: "Doing Dzikir and Du‘a in congregation is the Sunnah, those who reject this and not doing Dzikir in congregation are those who oppose the Sunnah and causing a fitnah/dispute. They are a small group if not heretic, are people who are close to heresy, deviated and the makers of Fitnah."

We have heard some “preachers” making that statement, may Allah guide us and every sincere seeker of Truth. May Allah punish them in this world so that they may make amends or make them to repent before the coming of the punishment. They are the ones who will have to answer to the imams they have slandered on Judgement Day, as well as to the Companions who did not do Dzikir and Du‘a in congregation. Due to their audacity of passing judgement and name calling which instigated the public or masses to follow them in that.

            If they committed it out of mistake, may Allah pardon them with their repentance and their quest to seek the truth and not blindly following others and make assumptions without knowledge. Even if they meant good and thought that what they choose to follow is the truth, yet why should they use slanderous words against those who disagree with them without any valid proof? Instead they should have done the same as how we do with this small effort of ours in this article, citing and quoting from the scholars, for the sake of seeking the truth and following the best opinion, to gain success and salvation in the Hereafter. We are to follow the Truth and only arrogance would deter a person from accepting the Truth, may Allah save us from such an attitude.     

Next, we cite here a narration from the Companion, Ibn Mas‘oudt.
‘Amru bin Yahya bin ‘Amru bin Salamah al-Hamdani narrated from his father and his father narrated it form his father (the grandfather of ‘Amru): Once, we were sitting by the door outside the house of ‘AbdulLah bin Mas‘ud, before the Ghadah[10] (Fajr) Prayer, such that when he goes out of his house, we will go together with him to the masjid. Then, Abu Musa al-Asy‘ariy came asking us: {Has Abu ‘Abdir Rahman (i.e.  Ibn Mas‘ud) leave his house yet?}. We replied: Not yet.
So he sat with us waiting for him (Ibn Mas‘ud) to come out. When he (Ibn Mas‘ud) actually came out, we all rose and immediately, Abu Musa said to him: {O’ Aba ‘Abdir Rahman!  I saw in the masjid just now, a thing which I disapprove and yet it is meant good, walhamdulillah.}

Ibn Mas‘ud asked: {What was it?} Abu Musa said: {If you go there, you will see it yourself. I saw in the masjid, a group of people, sitting in circles, waiting for the Prayer time. In each circle, is a leader and in their hands, they have something that they use for counting. The leader would say: Say the Takbier 100 times, then all of them will start to say and count the Takbier 100 times. He would then say: Say the Tahliel 100 times, so they say it 100 times and he would say: Do the Tasbieh 100 times and all of them will say it 100 times.}

Ibn Mas‘ud then asked: {What did you say to them?} Abu Musa answered: {I did not say anything to them yet, as I seek your opinion}
 Ibn Mas‘ud responded saying: {Why didn’t you ask them to count their sins/wrongdoings instead and assure them that this act of worship of theirs will not be worthless?}

Then he walked to the masjid with us until he came face to face with one of the circles and stopped them by saying: {What is the thing that I see you all doing?} They replied: O’ Aba ‘Abdir Rahman, we are just counting takbier, tahliel and tasbieh with this thing in our hands.
So Ibn Mas‘ud said to them: {Count your sins and bad deeds since I will be the one who guarantees that this act of worship of yours  will not be worthless! How despicable you have become O’ the nation of Muhammad! How fast you all fall to destruction! They, the Companions of your Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), many of them are still around you, the garment that the Prophet (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) left is not soiled yet, his container has not broken yet, and by Him whose in His Hand is my soul, you are on a better religion from the religion of Muhammad or you are merely opening a door of deviation?!}
They replied: {By Allah, O’ Aba ‘Abdir Rahman, we only meant good}
Ibn Mas‘ud responded: {How many people hope to achieve what is good, but they do not get it (as their means to achieve it is wrong). Truly, the Messenger of Allah (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) told us:
There will be a group of people reciting the Qur’an, yet their recitation will never reach their throats (meaning they are diligent but they misinterpreted it’s content) they will leave Islam as fast as how a shooting arrow leaves it’s bow,
By Allah, I fear, probably most of you are of this group of people}. Then he left.
Indeed I (the narrator) saw the majority of them (the people of the circles) fought against us in the Battle of Nahrawan with the Khawarij.”
[NB ad-Darimi (1/68-69), Bah-syal in Tariekh Wasit (pg.198) with 2 routes of narration from ‘Amru bin Yahya bin ‘Amru bin Salamah al-Hamdani, via a Sahih isnad.
It has also been narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim in al-Jarh wa at-Ta‘diel: 3/1/269 and the narrators he mentioned are reliable narrators among them Ibn ‘Uyainah and Ibn Ma‘ien (the teacher of Imam al-Bukhariy) who said: This hadeets is good.
That is the clarification made by Ibn Ma‘ien pertaining to the narrators of ‘Amr’s father, that is Yahya (4/2/176): Yahya bin ‘Amru bin Salamah al-Hamdaniy, also known as al-Kindiy. He received narrations from his father (i.e ‘Amru bin Salamah) and many had received (recognised) his (Yahya) narrations among them Syu‘bah, ats-Tsauriy, al-Mas‘udiy, Qais bin ar-Rabie‘ and his very own son ‘Amru bin Yahya]    
All of the above are with regard to this long narration of what happened between Ibn Mas‘ud and the people of the circles, as for the hadeets which Ibn Mas‘ud quoted of the prophetic saying of the Messenger (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam): There will be a group of people reciting the Qur’an….shooting arrow leaves it’s bow has many other routes of narration as in al-Musnad (1/404) and it’s Isnad is Jayyid. It has also ben narrated by Imam from a number of the Companions (3/109-117) [11]

            This Atsar contains a number of essentially important lessons for all of us. Especially when there exist among our community today, people doing a similar act as these people of the Circles who were reprimanded by Ibn Mas‘ud, but when we try to rectify them, instead of accepting our advice, they will in return accuse us as people who dislike Dzikir and disapprove people doing Dzikir. Whereby in reality, we are correcting the manner of doing Dzikir, just like how Ibn Mas‘ud did.

True, if there be anyone who disapproves Dzikir, he is committing heresy and disbelief – as he disapproves what Allah has made legitimised and commanded us to do. I believe, no true believer or a muslim dares to disapprove it. If there be anyone who dislike other people doing Dzikir, then he has the trait of a hypocrite in him. The truth is, what is disapproved, is the manner, specifying the number or day or time, worse if it is by the grave, not in compliance with the Prophet’s and his Companions’ ways. If that is not the very reason for Ibn Mas‘ud to be so upset and angry in correcting them, then whatever else could it be? This is very clear from the narration. Likewise Abu Musa al-Asy‘ariy also disapproved what they were doing. The way Abu Musa al-Asy‘ariy came to inform Ibn Mas‘ud also clearly shows that this is a rejected act, a newly invented way of worship. Did not the leader of the circles, specified the manner, the number of times, the way, the time and so on of the Dzikir, which Allah and His Messenger never specified? They “snatched away” what is from the rights and authority which belong solely to Allah, to determine in matters of this deen, what Allah never approved: Allah says:

 “Do have they partners with Allah (false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not ordained?”[12]

This is “the punch line” said by Ibn Mas‘ud  “you are on a better religion from the religion of Muhammad” i.e. in line with this verse, that such acts are not from the Prophet’s (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) teachings and will only pave a way to a great calamity, “or you are merely opening a door of deviation”. Let us beware of this, safeguard ourselves and our deen, at our very best to avoid such a calamity. Wallahu a’lam.

            The Messenger of Allah (sallalLaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: (meaning) “Follow the 2 men after me, Abu Bakar and ‘Umar, and take guidance from‘Ammar and whatever Ibn Mas‘ud narrates to you, then you are to accept it (in another wording): Hold tight to Ibn Mas‘uds teachings.”[13]

[1] Zaynuddeen 'Abdur Rahman bin Ahmad bin 'Abdur Rahman bin al-Hasan as-Salami al-Baghdadi, al-Hambali, ad-Dimasyqie. His kun-yah was Abul Faraj, yet he was popularly known as Ibn Rajab. He was among the most knowledgable people of his era, to the extent that scholars like ash-Shaikh al-‘Utsaimien gave this remark: His book al-Qawa‘id is not to be taught by any lecturer of an Islamic University due to incompetency, rather the real scholars who are teachers to such lecturers. Al-Hafiz Ibn Rajab  was born in 736H and he passed away in 795H, leaving a huge legacy of knowledge of multiple disciplines.
[2] I‘lam al-Muwaqqi‘ien: 2/460
[3] Fath al-Bari: 3/475
[4] Al-Imam Al-Hāfiz Ibn Hajar Al-cAsqalānī born in the year 773H, Shihābuddīn Ahmad bin cAli bin Hajar Al-cAsqalānī Al-Shāficī. He passed away in the year 852H, leaving oceans of knowledge for the Muslim Ummah to acquire and benefit from. He was then during his lifetime and until today a Point of Reference for the ummah (Muslim World) especially in Hadeets and  it’s Sciences. Among his works Lisān al-Mīzān, Al-Isābah fī Tamyīz Al- Sahābah, Taqrīb Al-Tahdhīb, Fath al-BarSharh Sahīh Al-Bukhārī and many others.
[5]Fath al-Bari: 3/54, Bab Solat ad-Duha fi as-Safar.
[6] Fath al-Bari: 2/80.
[7] NB Ibn Majah from Abu Hurayrah; al- Jami‘ as-Saghier: no: 6158.
[8] NB Muslim from ‘AbdulLah bin az-Zubair; Sahih Muslim (Syaran-Nawawi): 5/89-91-92.
[9] Majmuu’ Fataawaa Syeikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyah : 22/519-520.
[10] Ghadah: is the timeframe between the arrival of Fajar until sunrise – Mu‘jam Lughat al-Fuqaha’: pg. 328 – I’ve to explain this because some others translated it as “Zohr”. It’s significance, that is, Fajr Prayer instead of Zohr, it shows how diligent they were in worship.
[11] see Silsilah al-Ahadiets as-Sahiehah: 5/11-12 (no: 2005; Bab: The effect of committing Bid‘ah and extremisim in religion)
[12] Al-Qur’an: Surah asy-Syura: 42:21
[13]NB Abu Ya‘la, at-Tirmidzi, ar-Ruyaniy dan Ibn ‘Adiy from Hudzaifah, Ibn Mas‘ud and Anas. 

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