Friday, August 29, 2014

The 2 Eid Prayers (Tamaam al-Minnah)


Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq wrote:
Its ruling is sunnat mu’akkadah (a Sunnat which is highly recommended), as the Prophet (sollalLaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) always performed it and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend it …”


Comment: The “order” from the Prophet mentioned by the author only prooves that it is Wajib (Compulsory – rather than a highly recommended Sunnat), if his order to go out to attend it (the ‘Eid Prayer) is considered wajib, for certain and most appropriately, the sholat itself is also Wajib and this is very clear.… Among the proofs…it (performing the Eid Prayer) drops the obligation of the Jumu’ah/Friday Prayer, if both coincide on the same day (Eid falls on Friday) ….what is not “oblgiatory/compulsory would in no way drop a compulsory/obligatory item as mentioned by Siddieq Khan in his book “Ar-Raudhah An-Nadiyah” and do read up the complete clarification in that book and also in “As-Sail Al-Jarraar”: 1/315.

Conclusion (translator): According to the most righteous opinion, The Eid Prayers are compulsory prayers and not just recommended voluntary prayers.

[Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said under no:1: “From Ja’far bin Muhammad, from his father and from his grandfather:
{The Prophet  used to wear a beautiful Yemen-made garment on every Eid day}
(narrated by ash-Shaafi‘i and al-Baghawi)…”]

Comment: There are a few things:
(1) Indeed (Al-Imam) Ash-Shaafi’ee narrated it in “Al-Umm” via the route of Ibraahiem from Ja’far with this wording. Ibrahiem is Ibn Muhammad bin Abi Yahya Al-Madani matruuk[1] muttahham bilkadzib narrator. As for Ja’far, he is Ibn Muhammad bin ‘Aliy bin al-Husain bin ‘Aliy bin Abi Tholib, so his grandfather is Aliy bin al-Husain bin ‘Aliy bin Abi Tholib. So this isnad have 2 elements of weaknesses: i.e “Irsal[2] and ad-Da‘f ash-Shadied”.

1.   (2) As a matter of fact, al-Baghawi did not narrate it with any Isnad, instead he merely commented on the narration as he said in his “Sharhus Sunnah”: 4/302: “It has been so narrated that the Prophet used to… (the abovementioned narration)”

….I did my own analysis and extracted all the routes of narration of this hadeets with a lengthy and detailed explanation in “(Silsilah al-Ahadeets) ad-Da‘iefah”: 2455.

Nevertheless, this hadits has it’s shahid[3] from the hadeets of Ibn ‘Abbas with a Marfu status with the following wording:

"كان يلبس يوم العيد بردة حمراء"

“He used to wear a read burdah (a robe with very fine stripes) on ‘Eid days”

The detail takhriej is verified in “(Silsilah al-Ahadeets) as-Saheehah”: 1279…It has also been narrated by al-Hakim (4/230) via…from Zaid bin al-Hasan bin ‘Aliy from his father who said:

"أمرنا رسول الله  في العيدين أن نلبس أجود ما نجد ، و أن نتطيب بأجود ما نجد ... " الحديث

“The Messenger of Allah/Rasulullah ordered us on the two Days of ‘Eid, to put on the best of what we have (of clothing) and to apply the best of what we have of perfume…” the Hadeets.
….the truth is, thia has been narratedby al-Bukhariy in his “at-Tariekh”: 1/1/1222…

Conclusion: It is from the teachings of the Sunnah to put on the best apparel and perfume on ‘Eid days and not necessarily new clothing]

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[Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said: under no: 4 (Women and children joining the congregation): “And from Ibnu Abbas:

"أن رسول الله  كان يُخْرِج نساءه و بناته في العيدين "

“Verily the Messenger of Allah/Rasulullah  went out together with all his wives and his daughters for the 2 ‘Eids.” (NB Ibnu Maajah and Baihaqi).”]

Comment: In it’s Isnad there is a narrator named al-Hajjaj bin Artah, a Mudallis (manupulative narrator), and he narrated it with the “an’anah[4] way of narration and it also has the element of “Idtiroab” (discrepancies/inconsistency – a form of weakness) in it’s Isnad as in some narration he said: “From ‘Abdir Rahman bin ‘Abis from Ibn ‘Abbas”, at other instance, he said: “From ‘Ata’ bin Jaabir”.
NB Imam Ahmad: 3/363.
Even though al-Busairiy was correct in his “Zawaa-id” when he concluded:
“This Isnad is weak due to the manupulation (tadlies) of Hajjaaj” however he made the narration of Ahmad from him as a Shahid (supportive narration) whereby it is the very same single narration (not as a supportive – not a Shahid).

Conclusion: Men and women, old or young even children, slaves and freemen, women having their periodic discharge cycle and otherwise, all are being ordered to attend and witness the ‘Eid Congregation, saying the Takbeer and listening to the Khutbah/Sermon, except that those women who are in their periodic cycle, do not perform the Solat/Prayer while the rest are doing it – based on the Sahih hadeets of Umm ‘Atiyah – Sahih al-Bukhariy: no: 974 – Kitab al-‘Iedayn

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[al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said under no: 5 (Taking a different route while going to the place of ‘Eid Prayer and when returning from it): “based on Abu Daud’s narration and Hakim, likewise Bukhari in his at-Tarikh, i.e. from Bakr bin Mubasysyir, said: (Arabic Text)...I went out early in the morning to the place of ‘Eid Prayer; Fithri and Adh-ha with the companions and we…. The Valley of Bath-haan.”According to Ibnu Sikkin [5]: the Isnad of this hadeets is good.]

Comment: The truth is, it is not Sahih. As it is from the narration of Ishaaq bin Saalim from Bakrin/Bakar, whereby both of them were “Majhuul” (unknown as narrators) and for that reason adz-Dzahabiy when he mentioned about them in “al-Miezaan” commenting on this statement of Ibnus Sakan, he said: “My comment: Ishaaq and Bakar, both of them were not known to have narrated any narration except this hadeets only”

al-Hafiz (Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaniy): when he was explaining the biography of this Ishaaq, he said: “Majhuul haal (his character is unknown and thus his narration is not accepted”. A Majhuul narrator’s hadeets is not accepted regardless of any condition whatsoever.


Conclusion: One is to go by one way while going for the ‘Eid Prayer, and to return via another path. – Saheeh Hadeets: Jabir – al-Bukhariy: 986

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[al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said with regard to The Time for the ‘Eid Prayer: “…narrated by Ahmad bin Hasan Al-Banna which he received from Jundub, he said: (Arabic Text)……
With regard to this hadeets, Syaukani said: it is the best hadeets which mentions the time to pray the ‘Eid Prayer.”]

Comment: Yes, true if only that this hadeets is Saheeh (unfortunately it is not),....

In fact, there is a Saheh hadeets in this issue (the Time for ‘Eid Prayer) from the narration of  ‘Abdillah bin Busrin; which mentions that he went out together with other people on ‘Eid Fitri Day or Adha, then he corrected the Imam (of the Prayer) who came late saying to him:

"إنا (إن)[6] كنا مع النبي  قد فرغنا ساعتنا هذه ، و ذلك حين التسبيح "

“We, together with the Prophet , used to have finished at this hour (the Prayer of ‘Eid), that is at the time of at-Tasbieh (when the time of permissibility to perform voluntary or Duha begins immediately after the time of prohibition is over – when the sun begins to shine/rise).”
(NB Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim and at-Tabaraniy).[7]

NB Abu Dawud and others, whereas al-Bukhariy narrated it in Mu‘allaq way (without Isnad) but conclusively (in his book), while al-Hakim, an-Nawawi and adz-Dzahabi clasified it as Saheeh and it’s takhriej[8] is mentioned in “al-Irwa’”: 3/101 and “Saheeh Abi Dawud”: 1040.

Conclusion: The Time for ‘Eid Prayers is immediately after sunrise and it is prefered for ‘Eid al-Adha early  as there are many tasks to fulfill (due to Sacrifice – Qurban) and for ‘Eid al-Fitri to be delayed a little to ease the people to give their compulsory Zakat al- al-Fitri

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[Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said under topic no:7  The Adzan and the Iqamah for Both ‘Eid Prayers:
“Then from Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas: (Arabic Text)…that the Prophet  prayed the ‘Eid Prayers without any adzan or iqamah and he would stand while giving the khutbah/sermon and he separated the 2 khutbahs by sitting a short while”
(NB Bazzar)]

Comment: The silence of the author (Sayyid Saabiq) without giving any comment, gives the idea that, as if this narration is Saheeh, although the truth is, it is not Saheeh, not even of Hasan for truly al-Haitsamiy said: “al-Bazzaar narrated in the  wijaadatan [9] manner and in it’s Isnad there is a narrator whom I don’t not know (unknown) [10]

Conclusion: No adzan nor Iqamah for ‘Eid Prayers and not even the call-out “as-Solat Jami‘ah as clarified by Imam Ibn al-Qayyim – Zad al-Ma‘ad: 1/442

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[Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said under the Topic:  The Takbir during Salatul ‘Idain:
“…it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir seven times…..One is to raise one’s handsduring each pronouncement of the takbir.”]

Comment: The most appropriate is  to say that: It is not a Sunnah (to raise hands) as it is not tsaabit (not confirmed/not justified)[11] from him, even though it is said to be a narration from ‘Umar and his son (Ibn ‘Umar), yet that does not necessarily mean that it is a Sunnah. Didn’t you see that the author (Sayyid Saabiq) held the same view as ours in the issue of the Takbir in the Jenazah (Funeral) Prayer[12], justified it with our arguments, although it has been proven as an authentic/sahih narration from Ibn ‘Umar, that he used to raise his hands while pronouncing the Takbir in Solatul Janaazah (Funeral Prayer)?! If he (Sayyid Saabiq) took it to himself that raising the hands in this issue (solatul ‘idayn) as a Sunnah when saying the takbir, then by the same token, he should have said the same for the other issue (i.e. Solatul Janaazah) that it is also a sunnah, if not, by right he should have concluded that it is not legislated for both issues and that is the correct conclusion[13], especially when the narrations from ‘Umar and his son (Ibn ‘Umar) in this matter (raising the hands in the takbeer of the Solatul ‘Idayn – ‘Eid Prayers) are not authentic/not sahih.

The narration from ‘Umar was transmitted by al-Baihaqiy with a da‘ief (weak) sanad/chain of narration.

As for the narration from his son (Ibn ‘Umar), until today, I’ve not found it and Imam Maalik stated: “I have never heard anything about it (i.e. I have never heard any narration to justify the raising of hands during takbir in the Eid Prayers)”. Do refer to: “al-Irwa’”: 640.

Conclusion: for the ‘Eid Prayers it is not a Sunnah to raise the hands while pronouncing the 7 times takbir in the
 1st Raka‘ah and 5 times in the 2nd as how it is also not a Sunnah to do so in the 4 takbir of the Janazah/Funeral Prayer
 (even though there is a Sahih narration from Ibn ‘Umar that he used to raise his hands) and raising the hands is only to be
 done for takbeeratul ihraam in all these prayers

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[al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said: 
“…and nothing has been related from him concerning exactly what he said during the pause; however, at-Tabarani and al-Baihaqi relate, with a strong chain, that Ibn Mas‘ud would praise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make prayers (salawat) upon the Prophet  during such intervals…”]

Comment: He (Sayyid Saabiq) stated “with a strong chain” merely following the statement of al-Hafiz in “at-Talkhies” and to me, this needs to be re-evaluated, because in the sanad of at-Tabaraniy there is an Inqita (broken chain) as mentioned by al-Haitsamiy in his “al-Majma‘” whereas the Isnad (routes of narration) of al-Baihaqiy, it has been classified as “distorted” by Ibn at-Turkumani in “al-Jauhar an-Naqiy” saying: “in it’s Isnad there are narrators whom their status of narration and character need to be re-checked.”

Comment: Most likely, the narrator whom he meant is Muhammad bin Aiyuub and I myself too, do not know him (as a narrator – after my research of thousands of narrators – trans.). Among the narrators, there a few narrators whose names are likewise (unknown). Ibnul Qayyim in “az-Zad” classified this narration from Ibn Mas‘oud as weak and it is the more righteous and stronger opinion and supported by the conclusion of Ibn at-Turkumani:
“al-Baihaqiy mentioned the saying of Ibn Mas’oud in this matter/issue before this, from various routes of narration and Ibn Abi Shaibah had mentioned more routes than that (mentioned by al-Baihaqiy), likewise the many scholars of Hadeets other than these two and yet none of these narrations mention anything about the saying of any dzikir at the intervals of the takbeers in the ‘Eid Prayers, in fact, there is no narration in any sanad-borne hadeets and not even from any of the as-Salaf, to the extent of our knowledge, except this single and weak narration.
In the hadeets of Jaabir which was mentioned, right after the hadeets, in it’s sanad there is a narrator whose caharacter need to be re-examined and there is also another narrator by the name of ‘Aliy bin ‘Asim, whom Yazied bin Haruun disputed (his narration): We still know him and his lies… he says: if it is legislated [14], for certain it would have been transmitted to us (i.e. via trusted and reliable routes of narration, such that it is to be practised), and likewise, the As-Salaf  would not have neglected it’s (the dzikir at the intervals of the takbeers) narration”

Then I found for this atsar of Ibn Mas‘oud, another route of narration, while I was doing my research on the book “Fadlus Salati ‘ala an-Nabiy ” (The Virtues of the Salawat upon the Prophet) by al-Imam Isma‘iel al-Qadi and I verified that it’s Isnad is of Hasan[15] status and it has been classified as Sahih by as-Sakhawiy in his book “al-Qawl al-Badie‘ fis Salati ‘ala al-Habeeb asy-Syafie‘: pg. 151 – Hindi’s edition, do refer to “Fadlus Salati”: pg. 37-38 published by al-Maktab al-Islaami and see also “al-Irwaa”: 642.

Conclusion: with the existence of this Hasan narration, it is permissible to practise it i.e. the saying of the dzikir eg. “Alhamdulillah” etc praises for Allah and then the Salawat upon the Prophet according to some scholars. Yet, it is from Ibn Mas‘oud (as a Mawquf narration), not confirmed that it is from the Sunnah of the Prophet and if we apply the methodology of asy-Syeikh al-Albaaniy as in the issue of raising the hands, in the Janazah/Funeral Prayer which is also a Mawquf narration (from Ibn ‘Umar), hence likewise the saying of the Dzikir at the intervals of the takbiers in the ‘Eid Prayers/Solat al-‘Eid is not to be practised, unless one takes it as “Marfu‘ hukman”. Wallahu a’lam – trans.

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[Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said with regard to “The Khutbah (Sermon) of Salat ‘Id” [see notes: pg.156 – 2.151 c]: “Abdullah ibn as Sa-ib said: “I prayed the ‘id salah with the Messenger ()…., may leave
(This is related by an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah)”]



Comment: it’s Isnad[16] is weak, Abu Dawud and ad-Daaraqutniy as well as Ibn Ma‘ien clarified as a weak narration due to it’s Mursal status.
Comment: in it (it’s sanad) there is a narrator by the name Ibn Juraij, a Mudallis (manipulative in narration) and he transmitted this narration in the  ‘an’anah form (implying an idea of him being manipulative).

Then it appears to me (after further research), such that I am more inclined to conclude that it (the sanad) is Mawsul i.e. continuous (instead of Mursal – broken chain – a missing link between the Tabi‘ie and the Prophet), instead of Mursal and that the ‘an’anah of Ibn Juraij in this narration, does not affect it (as it is in reality, a continuous chain) as I have explained in  “al-Irwaa”: 629, do refer to it, and for that reason I included this narration in  “Sahih Abi Dawud”: 1048 and al-Hakim, as well as adz-Dzahabi and Ibn Khuzaimah (1462) also classified it as Sahih, therefore this hadeets is Sahih.

Al-Ustadz Sayyid Saabiq said, still with regard to: “The Khutbah (Sermon) of Salat ‘Id”:  [pg.157 – top of the page]
“Ibn al-Qayyim writes:… Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa‘id, …that the Prophet () would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more so during the ‘Id khutbahs…”

Comment: It does not only proove that it is not mashru‘ (not legislated) to initiate the ‘Eid Khutbah (sermon) with the saying of “takbeer”, due to it’s weak isnad, as in it (this isnad) there is a Da‘ief (weak) narrator and another, a Majhul (unknown narrator among the scholars of hadeets), in fact, it is also not appropriate to serve as a justified proof, with this narration, that it is a Sunnah (for the Khateeb) to say the Takbeer at intervals of paragraphs of his sermon/khutbah.

To be continued: Part 2




[*] What is in the [ ] is the quote from Ustadz Sayyid Sabiq’s Fiqh as-Sunnah, translated into English and the “Comment” is from al-‘Allamah al-Albaniy.
[1]  Matruuk: a weak narrator whose narration is rejected due to his incompetency in thruthfulness/trustworthiness.
    Muttaham bilkadzib: one who is mentioned by the Ahli Hadits as a person who has the tendency to lie in his narration as as previously proven/known.
[2] Irsaal i.e Mursal: a narration which is not continuous but being mentioned as if it is otherwise. Aliy bin Al-Husain (grandfather of  Ja’far) had never met the Prophet, so how would he know that the Prophet wore such and such on the Eid Days? For certain there was a link, a person who met the Prophet, who relayed what he saw of the Prophet’s action. But the question is: who is this link? A Sahabi/Companion? Or a Tabi‘ie? or his father? But Aliy narrated it with a statement implying that he himself saw the Prophet. This is a form of weakness in narrations..
ad-Da‘f ash-Shadeed: means a weakness which is extremely weak. Ibraheem was a Matruk narrator and Muttaham bilkadzib (known to have the tendency to lie – which comes under the category of a very weak and unreliable narrator.     
[3] Shahid (mufrad)/ Syawahid (شاهد/شواهد): It is a supportive narration or route being narrated by a group of narrators forming a chain of narration and yet bearing the same wording or meaning of a hadeets, narrated with another different chain of narration and  each of these chains ends at 2 different Sahabi/Companion Sahabi/Companion (different from the one which ends at the very same Sahabi/Companion).
[4]  From so and so (ambiguous whether directly or through an intermediate)  – a manipulative narrator would use this way of narration to give the idea that he received the narration from the transmission of the narrator before him directly, and this is treated differently if he said it conclusively, using convincing phrases of narration: “I heard –  سمعت” or “delivered to me - haddatsanaa”, “said to me - akhbaranie” etc.
[5]  The correct pronunciation is Ibnus Sakan .
[6] As clarified by al-Hafiz (Fath al-Bari: 2/529 – Kitab al-‘Eidayn Bab 10: at-Takbeer ilal ‘Eid;  hadeets no: 968).
[7] The elaboration on the meaning of this brief narration and the Imamswho recorded it were takenfrom Fath al-Bari.
[8] Takhriej ( تخريج ): is the elaboration mentioning the references for the hadeets; Books of Hadeets (primary resources) like; as-Sihah (books titled Sahih), al-Masanied (Musnad - singular), as-Sunan (Sunan), al-Ma‘ajim (al-Mu‘jam), al-Musannafaat (Musannaf) and others. Then with the mentioning of it’s Kitab, Juz, Bab and number of the hadeets/first narrator.
[9] i.e not from what a narrator heard from his teacher directly but rather by his  discovery/found his teachers book/records with his own handwriting and the teacher was a Hadeets Scholar.
[10] Not listed or his character is unknown to the Scholars of Hadeets since the  Classical era – whereby millions of the names of narrators listed in thousands of books containing the narrators’ biographies.
[11] There is no confirmed authentic narration.
[12] See: 4/88 of  Fiqhus Sunnah and  “Naylul Autar”: 4/53 – Arabic version [from ash-Shaykh al-Albaaniy’s footnote]
[13] i.e. for Solatul ‘Idayn it is not Sunnah to raise the hands while pronouncing the takbir, so likewise it is not a Sunnah to do it in Solatul Janaazah (even though, there is a Sahih narration from Ibn ‘Umar that he used to raise his hands). In conclusion there is no raising of the hands for both prayers during the Takbir except the raising of the hands to initiate the prayer  i.e. the takbeeratul ihraam.
[14]  i.e. if there be any specific dzikir to be said at the intervals of these takbeers.
[15] Hasan ( حسن ): it is the same as Sahih, except that, there is one narrator or more in it’s chain of narration whose strength of memory not as perfect as that of the Sahih narrators.
[16] Singular is Sanad ( سند ): Sanad of a hadeets: the chain of narrators in a particular narration of a hadeets eg.: al-Imam Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad bin Ismaa’iel al-Bukhariy said: “al-Humaidi  ‘Abdullah bin az-Zubair (al-Makkiy) narrated to us from Sufyaan (bin ‘Uyainah) who transmitted it from Yahya bin Sa’ied al-Ansariy, who narrated it from Muhammad bin Ibraahiem at-Taimiy who conveyed it saying that he heard  ‘Alqamah bin Waqqas al-Laitsiy relayed to him saying: I heard ‘Umar bin al-Khattab delivered on the mimbar/pulpit saying: I (i.e. ‘Umar) heard the Messenger of Allah said: Innamal a’maalu bin niyyaat (Verily deeds are but by their intention)…” Here the Sanad or chain of narrators are the narrators whose names are underlined; starting from Imam al-Bukhariy up until the Companion of the Messenger; ‘Umar bin Al- Khattab .

 
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