Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Incontinence - Istihadah, uncontrollable break wind & discharge of al-Madziy/al-Wad-yu

How does one who has incontinence performs his prayers? Does he has to change his diapers everytime he wants to perform solat? Can he delay his prayer timing like doing the zohor solat near to asar so that he can keep his wudhu?
Uncle Din

بسم الله و الحمد لله و الصلاة و السلام على نبينا محمد بن عبد الله و على آله و صحابته و من تبع هداه 

و بعد
One who has a problem of persistence or continuous nullification of the wudu’, that is, he/she is not able to preserve his/her wudu’, due to
a.   Istihadah (abnormal menstruation)[1],
b.   incontinence (salasil bawl), (including vaginal discharge[2] or urine leakage in women)
c.   or the abnormal continuous discharge of al-Madziy (a.k.a madz-yun and ma-dzin, seminal fluid or sperm atorrhea, gonacratia) or al-Wad-yu (secretion of prostate)[3],
d.   or uncontrollable repeated break wind/passing out wind (fart),
e.   or unstoppable bleeding of a wound/cut,

he/she needs to

(for categories “a”-“c”)
1.      Remove his/her diaper/tissue/disposable underwear/cloth (it is advisable for those under these 3 categories to use tissue/disposables rather than facing the trouble to change/clean their underwear for every prayer)
2.      Clean his/her the genitalia (private parts)
3.      Place a fresh tissue/liner etc
(for “e”)  Change the dressing if necessary and if not too troublesome.
(all of the above categories)
4.      take a fresh wudu’ for every solat timeframe, for eg. he/she must wait for the Azdan of Zohor to take the wudu’ for Zohor prayer, it can be later but not before it. When Asar time arrives, he/she must redo the above, and take a fresh wudu’ again.

After having performed the above instructions, he/she can perform his prayers of Tahiyatul-Masjid, prayer of Wudu’, Prayer of Qabliyah (Rawatib) and the Fard Prayer  eg. Zohor, then the Ba‘diyah (rawatib) with that wudu’, even though he/she notices/feels/senses the flow of blood/urine/al-Madziy/al-Wadyu or passing out of wind while performing any of these prayers, as long as it is within his/her regular conditions of these “abnormalities”, which are considered “concessionary”.
What is meant here to be “beyond his or her regular abnormalities”, if for example, he/she suffers from “incontinence”, he/she cannot take the ruling of one who suffers from uncontrollable break wind, or al-Madziy, such that when he/she break wind, it invalidates his/her wudu’, although the discharge of uncontrollable little urine does not nullifies his/her wudu’. The same goes to if the discharge is part of “contrallable urine”, which also invalidates his/her wudu’.
Wallahu ‘alam.

I hope it is clear, that one who is in any of these categories should not delay his prayer to do a “figurative-like” jama‘ prayer or the like of Jama‘ Suri as scholars termed, describing the Jama‘ in the view of the Hanafi School of Fiqh, i.e. performing Zohor at the very end of it’s timeframe and ‘Asar at the very beginning, rather he/she should do as explained above.

This explanation is gathered from:

  1. Commentary on Bulugh al-Maram, i.e. Tawdieh al-Ahkam hadeets no: 62, 63 and 117 (point no: 9).
  2. Fiqh as-Sunnah – Sayyid Sabiq under the sub-topic: “beneficial crucial points concerning wudu’” just before the “The Wiping of the two Khuffs/Shoes” – Fiqh as-Sunnah pg. 57 (Arabic edition)

[1] Discharge of the “natural blood of women” other than the menstruation period. There are types of this natural blood in Islamic rulings; i. Haid i.e. the normal discharge within it’s specific period and cycle. ii. Nifas i.e. also known as “maternity blood/discharge” the discharge of blood during and after one gives birth (including amniotic fluid prior to delivery). iii. Istihadah an abnormal discharge that is out of the specific period and cycle for non-pregnant women and pre-natal discharge of blood (long before delivery) in pregnant women.    
[2] In Islamic rulings, termed as “al-Kudrah” and “as-Sufrah”
[3] The distinctive difference between these two; al-Madziy + al-Wad-yu  and al-Maniy (semen) is that these two come out as slow flowing sticky dilute fluid whereas al-Maniy comes out as thick starch-like liquid and in spurts. Discharge of al-Maniy requires “ghusl” or bathing for purification, whereby al-Madziy and al-Wadyu only require cleansing of the private area and wudu’. 
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