Tuesday, August 30, 2016

The Three Categories of Tawhied - al-Qadi Abu Yusuf (died 182H)

As we have understood, from the teachings of Salafussolih, our pious predecessors, among them al-Qadi Abu Yusuf (d: 182H), Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (d: 387H), al-Hafiz Ibn Mandah (d: 395H) and others, at-Tawhied is classified into 3 categories; ar-Rububiyah, al-Uluhiyah and al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat.

This article is a clear refutation against the false claims that Ibn Taimiyah (died: 728H) was the first person to introduce this categorization of at-Tawheed and it is not from the teachings of Salafussolih.

Statements made by Pious Predecessor Scholars (a-immat as-Salaf) - Abu Yusuf

al-Qadi Abu Yusuf (d: 182H), Ya‘qub bin Ibrahim bin Habieb al-Koufiy, was the companion and disciple of Imam Abu Haniefah (w: 150H).

Narrated by Ibn Mandah (d:395H) in his book “Kitab at-Tauhied”: Muhammad bin Abie Ja‘far as-Sarkhasiy narrated to me and he narrated from Muhammad bin Salamah al-al-Balkhiy, who narrated from Bisyrun bin al-Walied al-Qadi, who narrated that al-Qadi Abu Yusuf said:

“ليس التوحيد بالقياس ألم تسمع إلى قول الله عز و جل في الآيات التي يصف بها نفسه أنه عالم قادر قوي مالك ولم يقل: إني عالم قادر لعلة كذا أقدر بسبب كذا أعلم، بهذا المعنى أملك... فلذلك لا يجوز القياس في لتوحيد، و لا يعرف إلا بأسمائه ، و لا يوصف إلا بصفاته و قد قال الله في كتابه:

“Matters of at-Tawhied are not based on analogy. Didn’t you hear that He, the Exalted, in a number of verses (of the Quran) when He describes Himself, that He is The All-Knowing, Powerful who does as He wishes, Almighty, Sovereign and He didn’t say: I know and decree because of such and such factors, I’m Almighty due to such reasons, I possess Sovereign because of so and so. Hence, Analogy is not allowed in matters of at-Tawhied. He is not known except with His Names and not described save that of His Attributes He Himself described.

He the Exalted and Most Glorified clarified (meaning):

{O you mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you and those who came before you, that you may attain righteousness} (al-Baqarah: 21)
{Do they see nothing in the government of the heavens and the earth and all that Allah hath created? (Do they not see) it may be that their term is drawing near to an end} (al-A‘raaf: 185)
{Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the Night and the Day;  in the sailing of the ships through the Ocean….}” (al-Baqarah: 164)

Abu Yusuf elaborated further:

“Allah didn’t say: {See how knowledgeable I am and how Powerful I am to do as I wish and also how I create}. Instead He said: {See how I created} then

He said (meaning):
{It is Allah Who creates you and takes your souls at death…} (an-Nahl: 70)
He also said (meaning):
{As also in your own selves: will ye not then see?} (adz-Dzaariyaat: 21)
“Meaning, let it be known to you that there is a Lord managing all these things. He turns them into this and that, makes them appear and return them (to their origin) and that you o mankind are created and what you own are created for you too. Allah only directed His creations to the (amazing) Creation, so that they know that there is a Lord for them, worthy to be worshipped and to be obeyed alone and for them to know that He created them and they didn’t come to live haphazardly or out of chance or coincidentally, then He named Himself: {I’m ar-Rahman, I am ar-Rahiem, I’m The Creator, I’m al-Qaadir (the Powerful) and I’m al-Maalik (the Sovereign)}. That is; The One who created you called al-Maalik al-Qaadir, I am Allah, ar-Rahman ar-Rahiem by these I’m described”

 Abu Yusuf then continued:

“Allah is known through His Signs, His Creations and His Attributes as well as His Names as He Himself attributed in His Book and whatever Rasul delivered to mankind.”

Then Abu Yusuf explained further:

“Indeed Allah created you, He made in yourselves the means and your limbs, whereby some of them incapable of doing what some others can. He transforms you from one stage to another so that you are aware that indeed you have a Lord and He made you, your very own self is a burden of proof upon you, that you know Him by knowing His creations and then

He describes Himself (meaning):
{I am ar-Rabb (the Sovereign Governer and Manager of all affairs), I am ar-Rahman, I am Allah, I am al-Qaadir, I am al-Maalik},
He the Exalted said (meaning):
{Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon Rahman: by whatever name you call upon Him, (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful names...} (al-Israa: 110)
He also said (meaning):
{The most beautiful names belong to Allah: so call on Him by them; but shun such men as use profanity in His names...} (al-A‘raaf: 180)
He also said (meaning):
{To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare His Praises and Glory; and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise} (al-Hasyr: 24)

Therefore, He commanded us to attribute Oneness to Him and His Oneness is not by means of analogy. Because analogy is only applicable for a comparative thing, between 2 similar or alike things and Allah is Pure and Chaste, free from any form of similarities, likeness or resemblance, Most High is He the Best to Create.”

Then, Abu Yusuf went on:

“How can at-Tawhied – the Oneness of Allah, ever be known by analogy, when He is The Creator of Creations, contrary to creations, there is nothing like unto Him, The Most Giving Most High. He commanded you to believe in everything that His Messenger brought forth

He said:
{Say: "O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: thereis no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, who believed in Allah and His Words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided} (al-A‘raaf: 158)

Allah made it an obligation upon you to follow, listen and obey him (the Prophet), such that if the ummah is allowed to search and acquire at-Tawhied and Faith/Iman by means of their analogy or mental faculty and desires, certainly they will go astray and misquided.

Didn’t you hear the Words of Allah (meaning):
{If the Truth had been in accord with their desires, truly the heavens and the earth, and all beings therein would have been in confusion and corruption!...} (al-Mukminuun: 71)
Do understand deeply the interpretation of that.
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