Tuesday, August 30, 2016

The Three Categories of Tawhied - Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (died 387H)

As we have understood, from the teachings of Salafussolih, our pious predecessors, among them al-Qadi AbuYusuf (d: 182H), Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (d: 387H), al-Hafiz Ibn Mandah (d: 395H) and others, at-Tawhied is classified into 3 categories; ar-Rububiyah, al-Uluhiyah and al-Asma’ wa as-Sifat.

This article is a clear refutation against the false claims that Ibn Taimiyah (died: 728H) was the first person to introduce this categorization of at-Tawheed and it is not from the teachings of Salafussolih.

Statements made by Pious Predecessor Scholars (a-immat as-Salaf) - Ibn Battah


Abu ‘Abdillah, ‘Ubaidillah bin Muhammad Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbariy (died: 387H) in his book “al-Ibanah ‘an Syarie‘ati al-Firqah an-Najiyah wa Mujanabati al-Firaq al-Madzmumah” (Clarification of the Syarie‘ah of the Saved Sect and Avoiding the Condemned Groups)

“الإبانة عن شريعة الفرقة الناجية و مجانبة الفرق المذمومة”

”ذلك أن أصل الإيمان بالله الذي يجب على الخلق اعتقاده في إثبات الإيمان به ثلاثة أشياء:

…the foundation of Iman (i.e. Belief in Allah) that every servant is obligated to believe in, so as to validate his iman in Him, comprises these 3 things;

أحدها: أن يعتقد العبد ربانيته ليكون بذلك مباينا لمذهب أهل التعطيل الذين لا يثبتون صانعا

Firstly: the servant is to believe in His Rabbaniyah (Rububiyah) i.e. His Sovereignty (Power over everything) and thus clears himself away from the Ideology of Ahlu at-Ta‘tiel (make God devoid of attributes) those who deny the Existence of a Creator

و الثاني :أن يعتقد وحدانيته ليكون بذلك مباينا لمذهب أهل الشرك الذين أقروا بالصانع و أشركوا معه في العبادة غيره

Secondly: and to believe in His Wihdaniyah (Oneness - Uluhiyah) i.e. His Godship that none is to be worshipped except Him and thus saves himself away from the Ideology of the Musyrikien who believe in the Creator but associate others with Allah as Deities

و الثالث :أن يعتقده موصوفا بالصفات التي لا يجوز إلا أن يكون موصوفا بها من العلم و القدرة و الحكمة و سائر ما وصف به نفسه في كتابه، إذ قد علمنا أن كثيرا ممن يقر به و يوحده بالقول المطلق قد يلحد في صفاته فيكون إلحاده في صفاته قادحا في توحيده و لأنا نجد الله تعالى قد خاطب عباده بدعائهم إلى اعتقاد كل واحدة من هذه الثلاث و الإيمان بها

Thirdly: and to believe in Him as having specific Attributes appropriate and suitable only to His Divine Supreme Being of Perfect Infinite Knowledge, Willpower and Wisdom (attributed only to Him – no comparison) and every other Attribute that He attributed to Himself in His Book (the Quran), since we know that many among those who believe in Him as The Creator and worship Him alone, at surface value, do fall into heresy and blasphemy with regards to believing in His Attributes, thus this form of heresy in matters pertaining to His Attributes is considered a flaw in his Tauhied (believing in the Oneness of Allah). Apart from that, we knew that Allah commanded His servants to believe in each and every one of these three.


 
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